Anatomy & Physiology Principles of Anatomy and Physiology
Principles of Anatomy and Physiology

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology Tortora • 14th Edition • 978-1118866092

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Ch. 1 - An Introduction to the Human Body

Cells to Organ Systems Homeostasis and Feedback Control

Ch. 2 - The Chemical Level of Organization

Fundamental Chemistry Chemical Reactions, Le Chatelier's Principle and Binding Equilibria Solutions and Solubility Acid-Base Chemistry Carbohydrates and Lipids Proteins I: Protein Structure Proteins II: Ligand Binding and Regulation of Function Enzymes and their Regulation

Ch. 3 - The Cellular Level of Organization

The Plasma Membrane Review of Physiologically-Relevant Organelles Diffusion Osmosis: Osmolarity, Osmotic Pressure and Tonicity Protein-Mediated Transport Vesicle-Based Transport: Endocytosis and Exocytosis Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression

Ch. 4 - The Tissue Level of Organization

Crossing an Epithelial Layer: The Trans- and Paracellular Pathway Cell-to-Cell Connections and Messages Body Fluid Compartments Epithelial Tissues Classifying Epithelial Tissues Simple Epithelial Tissues Pseudostratified Epithelial Tissues Stratified Epithelial Tissues Transitional Epithelial Tissues Exocrine Gland Classifications Connective Tissues Embryonic Connective Tissue Non-Embryonic Connective Tissue Proper Loose Connective Tissue Proper Dense Connective Tissue Supporting Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue Nervous Tissue Development and Modification of Tissue Membranes

Ch. 5 - The Integumentary System

Integumentary System Overview Epidermal Layers Epidermal Variations Dermal Layers Subcutaneous Layer Nails Hair Integumentary Glands

Ch. 6 - The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue

Bone Classifications Anatomy of Bones Bone Marrow Bone Cells Bone Matrix Bone Formation and Resorption Compact Bone Spongy Bone Overview of Bone Formation Endochondral Ossification Bone Intramembraneous Ossification Bone Remodeling Bone Fractures and Repair

Ch. 7 - The Skeletal System: The Axial Skeleton

Bone Markings Overview of the Skull Frontal Bone Occipital Bone Sphenoid Bone Ethmoid Bone Zygomatic Bone Lacrimal Bone Vomer Bone Inferior Nasal Concha Palatine Bone Maxilla Mandible Cranial Fossae Skull Sutures Anterior View of Skull Posterior View of Skull Superior View of Skull Lateral View of Skull Sagittal Sectional View of Skull Inferior View of Skull Associated Skull Bones Vertebrae Types Spinal Curvatures Vertebrae Anatomy Cervical Vertebrae Thoracic Vertebrae Lumbar Vertebrae Sacrum and Coccyx Thoracic Cage Parietal Bone Temporal Bone Sinuses

Ch. 8 - The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral Girdle Upper Limb - Humerus Upper Limb - Radius and Ulna Wrist and Hand Bones Pelvic Girdle Lower Limb - Femur Lower Limb - Tibia and Fibula Ankle Bones Foot Arches

Ch. 9 - Joints

Joint Classifications Fibrous Joints Cartilaginous Joints Synovial Joints Levers Synovial Joints and Movement Temporomandibular Joint Shoulder Joint Elbow Joint Hip Joint Knee Joint Ankle Joint

Ch. 10 - Muscular Tissue

Skeletal Muscle Cellular Anatomy-- Muscles to Sarcomeres Skeletal Muscle Contraction I: The Cellular Level Skeletal Muscle Contraction II: Tension and Length-Tension Curves Skeletal Muscle Contraction III: Summation and Tetanus Skeletal Muscle Contraction IV: Isotonic vs. Isometric Contractions Energy Requirements of Skeletal Muscle-- Fiber Types and Fatigue Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle--Skeletal Muscle Reflexes Smooth Muscle

Ch. 11 - The Muscular System

Muscle Origin and Insertion Organization of Skeletal Fibers Actions of Skeletal Muscles Naming of Skeletal Muscles Facial Expression Muscles Eye muscles Oral Cavity and Pharynx Muscles Anterior Neck and Hyoid Muscles Movement of Head and Neck Muscles Vertebral Column Muscles Respiration Muscles Abdominal Muscles Pelvic Floor Muscles Pectoral Girdle Muscles Glenohumeral Joint Muscles Elbow Joint Muscles Extrinsic Wrist and Hand Muscles Intrinsic Hand Muscles Hip Joint Muscles Knee Joint Muscles Extrinsic Ankle and Foot Muscles Intrinsic Foot Muscles Review of Muscle Movement

Ch. 12 - Nervous Tissue

Cells of the Nervous System Electrical Signals in Neurons I: Membrane Potential Vocabulary Electrical Signals in Neurons II: Graded vs. Action Potentials Electrical Signals in Neurons III: Action Potentials Action Potential Propagation The Refractory Period Neuronal Cell-to-Cell Communication: Synaptic Transmission Synaptic Integration I: Post-Synaptic Potentials (EPSPs and IPSPs) Synaptic Integration II: Summation Common Neurotransmitters and Receptors Nervous System Organization Neuron Structure Neuron Classification Nerves Glial Cells Myelination The Resting Membrane Potential I: Forces and Ohm's Law The Resting Membrane Potential II: Development of a Membrane Potential The Resting Membrane Potential III: The Nernst and Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz Equations

Ch. 13 - The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

Spinal Cord Anatomy and Spinal Nerves Spinal Cord Protection Spinal Cord Gray and White Matter Cervical Plexus Brachial Plexus Intercostal Nerves Lumbar Plexus Sacral Plexus Ascending Sensory Pathways Descending Sensory Pathways

Ch. 14 - The Brain and Cranial Nerves

The Brain-- Anatomy and Function The Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves-- Dermatomes and Myotomes Spinal Tracts-- Introduction to Ascending and Descending Pathways Brain Development Gray and White Matter Cranial Meninges Cerebrum Hemispheres Cerebrum Lobes Cerebrum Conncetions Cerebrum Functional Areas Cerebrum Nuclei Brain Ventricles Cerebrospinal Fluid Blood Brain Barrier Cerebrum Lateralization Diencephalon Epithalmus Diencephalon Thalamus Diencephalon Hypothalamus Brainstem Midbrain Brainstem Pons Brainstem Medulla Oblongata Cerebelllum Limbic System Reticular Formation Cranial Nerves Olfactory Nerve (CN I) Optic Nerve (CN II) Oculomotor Nerve (CN III) Trochlear Nerve (CN IV) Trigeminial Nerve (CN V) Abducens Nerve (CN VI) Facial Nerve (CN VII) Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII) Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX) Vagus Nerve (CN X) Accessory Nerve (CN XI) Hypoglossal Nerve (CN XII) Review of Cranial Nerves

Ch. 15 - The Autonomic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System: Divisions and Structure Overview of Reflexes Types of Reflexes Spinal Reflexes Parasympathetic Division Sympathetic Division Sympathetic Pathways Autonomic Plexuses

Ch. 16 - Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems

General Principles of Sensation and Sensory Receptors The Somatic Senses Chemoreception I: Smell Chemoreception II: Taste The Ear: Hearing The Ear: Equilibrium The Eye and Vision

Ch. 17 - The Special Senses

Around the Eye Eye Structure: Tunics Eye Structure: Retina Eye Structure: Lens Eye Accessory Structures

Ch. 18 - The Endocrine System

Basics of Hormone Function Hormone Classification and Mechanism of Action The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland The Adrenal Glands The Endocrine Pancreas The Thyroid Gland The Parathyroid Gland Pituitary Gland Anatomy Thyroid Gland Anatomy Adrenal Gland Anatomy Pineal Gland Anatomy Parathyroid Gland Anatomy Thymus Anatomy

Ch. 19 - The Cardiovasculcar System: The Blood

Blood Hemostasis-- The Clotting Cascade Blood Flow: Ohm's and Poiseuille's Laws The Blood Vessels

Ch. 20 - The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Overview of the Cardiovascular System Heart Anatomy Cardiac Muscle Action Potentials Cardiac Muscle Excitation-Contraction Coupling Cardiac Electrophysiology I: Nodal Fibers, Pacemaker Potentials, and Automaticity Cardiac Electrophysiology II: Electrical Conduction Pathways Electrocardiography I: Electrodes, Currents, and Leads Electrocardiography II: Interpreting an EKG The Cardiac Cycle I: Understanding the Valves The Cardiac Cycle II: Systole and Diastole The Cardiac Cycle III: Volumes in the Left Ventricle The Cardiac Cycle IV: Heart Sounds The Cardiac Cycle V: The Wiggers Diagram The Cardiac Cycle VI: The Ventricular Pressure-Volume Loop Cardiac Output I: Definitions Cardiac Output II: The Frank-Starling Law of the Heart Cardiac Output III: Autonomic Regulation of Cardiac Function Detailed Heart Anatomy Coronary Arteries Coronary Veins Development of the Heart

Ch. 21 - The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics

Structure of Vessels Structure of Arteries Structure of Capillaries Structure of Veins Blood Vessel Pathways Blood Pressure: Definitions and Measurement Capillary Exchange I: Diffusion Capillary Exchange II: Bulk Flow and the Starling Equation of Ultrafiltration Flow Around the Circulatory Loop Short-Term Regulation of Blood Pressure--the Baroreceptor Reflexes Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure I: Vasopressin/Anti-Diuretic Hormone

Ch. 22 - The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Lymphatic Capillaries Lymphatic Vessels Primary Lymphatic Structures Lymph Nodes Spleen Nodules MALT and Tonsils Pathogens of the Human Body Anatomy of the Immune "System" Cells of the Immune System Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity I: Introduction to Lymphocytes Acquired Immunity II: B Lymphocytes and Antibodies Acquired Immunity III: The Major Histocompatibility Complex and Antigen Presentation Acquired Immunity IV: T Lymphocytes and Cell-Mediated Responses

Ch. 23 - The Respiratory System

Anatomy and Organization of the Respiratory System Properties of the Lungs-- Compliance, Elasticity, Resistance, and Surface Tension Ventilation I: Boyle's Law Ventilation II: Mechanics of Inspiration and Expiration Lung Spirometry: Lung Volumes and Capacities Measuring Pressure of a Mixture of Gases-- Partial Pressures and Dalton's Law Total vs. Alveolar Ventilation and the Anatomic Dead Space Gas Exchange I: Diffusion in the Alveoli Gas Exchange II: Ventilation and Perfusion and V/Q Ratios Gas Transport in the Blood I: Oxygen and Hemoglobin Binding Gas Transport in the Blood II: Carbon Dioxide Regulation of Ventilation I: Neural Control of Respiratory Muscles Regulation of Ventilation II: Chemoreceptors and Effects of CO2, pH, O2 Nasal Cavity Anatomy Pharynx Anatomy Larynx Anatomy Trachea Anatomy Bronchial Tree Anatomy Respiratory Zone Lung Anatomy

Ch. 24 - The Digestive System

Anatomy and Function of the Digestive System The Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins From Mouth to Stomach The Stomach The Digestive Accessory Organs I: The Liver and Gall Bladder The Digestive Accessory Organs II: The Exocrine Pancreas The Small Intestine I : Arrival at the Duodenum and Initiation of Pancreas/Gall Bladder Secretion The Small Intestine II: Digestion and Absorption of the Three Macronutrients The Small Intestine III: Motility The Large Intestine Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function GI Wall Oral Cavity Pharynx and Esophagus Stomach Detailed Anatomy Small Intestine Anatomy Large Intestine Anatomy Liver Anatomy Pancreas Anatomy Gallbladder Anatomy

Ch. 25 - Metabolism and Nutrition

Thermodynamics for Physiology: The Energetics of (Bio)Chemical Reactions Metabolism I: Overview Metabolism II: Glycolysis Metabolism III: Aerobic Metabolism Metabolism IV: Protein and Lipid Catabolism Metabolism V: Anabolism Review of Metabolism-- Catabolic and Anabolic Processes Measuring Metabolism-- Basal Metabolic Rate and Respiratory Quotient Fed-State Metabolism and the Effects of Insulin Fasted-State Metabolism and the Effects of Glucagon Type I and Type II Diabetes Mellitus Appetite and Satiety Body Temperature Regulation Calcium (and Phosphate) Regulation I-- Bone Growth and Remodeling Calcium (and Phosphate) Regulation II-- Parathyroid Hormone, Vitamin D, and Calcitonin

Ch. 26 - The Urinary System

Anatomy of the Urinary System Basic Renal Processes The Glomerulus Reabsorption I: General Concepts of Reabsorption in the Kidney Reabsorption II: Reabsorption (and Secretion) in the Proximal Tubule Reabsorption III: The Loop of Henle Reabsorption IV: The Distal Tubule Reabsorption V: The Collecting Duct and Effects of ADH and Aldosterone Clearance-- Measuring Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal Plasma Flow Kidney Anatomy Flow Into and Out of the Kidney Urinary Tract

Ch. 27 - Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis

Body Fluid Compartments Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure I: Vasopressin/Anti-Diuretic Hormone Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure II: The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Hormonal Regulation of Blood Pressure II: The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Pulmonary Circulation Blood Flow In and Out of the Heart Head and Neck Circulation Thoracic and Abdominal Circulation Gastrointestional Circulation Posterior Abdominal Circulation Upper Limb Circulation Lower Limb Circulation Disturbing Blood pH-- Sources of Acid and Base and Acidosis vs. Alkalosis Calculating Blood pH-- The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation Causes of pH Disturbances-- Metabolic vs. Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis Controlling Blood pH I: Respiratory Compensation Controlling Blood pH II: Renal Compensation in the Proximal Tubule and Collecting Duct

Ch. 28 - The Reproductive Systems

Review of Mitosis and Meiosis Male Reproduction I: Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System Male Reproduction II: Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis Female Reproduction I: Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System Female Reproduction II: Oogenesis and Folliculogenesis Female Reproduction III: The Menstrual Cycle Scrotum and Testes Anatomy Male Reproductive Ducts Male Accessory Glands Penis Anatomy Ovaries Anatomy Uterine Tube Anatomy Uterus Anatomy Vagina Anatomy External Female Genitalia Mammary Glands Anatomy

Ch. 29 - Development and Inheritance

Sex Determination and Differentiation-- Boy or Girl? Making Babies I: The Sexual Response and Sexual Intercourse Making Babies II: Fertilization Making Babies III: Early Development and Implantation Making Babies IV: Labor and Delivery (Parturition) Making Babies V: Lactation-- Feeding the Baby

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