Gauss's law is expressed as:

$\overline{){{\mathbf{\varphi}}}_{{\mathbf{E}}}{\mathbf{=}}\frac{{\mathbf{Q}}_{\mathbf{enc}}}{{\mathbf{\epsilon}}_{\mathbf{0}}}}$,

Gauss’ law applies to

a. flat surfaces

b. lines.

c. closed surfaces.

d. spheres only.

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