We are required to explain why the buoyant force is always directed upward.
The reason that buoyant force acts upward on a submerged object is that
a. it acts in a direction to oppose gravity
b. if it acted downward, nothing would float
c. the weight of fluid displaced reacts with an upward force
d. upward pressure against the bottom is greater than downward pressure against the top of the submerged object
e. it acts against the atmospheric pressure
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