The potential energy of a dipole oscillating in an electric field is:

$\overline{){{\mathbf{U}}}_{\mathbf{d}\mathbf{i}\mathbf{p}\mathbf{o}\mathbf{l}\mathbf{e}}{\mathbf{=}}{\mathbf{-}}{\mathbf{pE}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{c}}{\mathbf{o}}{\mathbf{s}}{\mathbf{\theta}}}$

where p is the magnitude of the dipole moment, E is the field strength, and θ is the angle between the dipole moment and electric field vectors.

Total energy:

$\overline{){\mathbf{E}}{\mathbf{=}}{\mathbf{K}}{\mathbf{E}}{\mathbf{+}}{\mathbf{U}}}$

At 0°, the potential energy of the system is -2 μJ:

The graph shows the potential energy of an electric dipole. Consider a dipole that oscillates between ±60°

What is the dipole's mechanical energy?

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