The instantaneous emf is expressed as:

$\overline{){\mathbf{V}}{\mathbf{=}}{{\mathbf{V}}}_{{\mathbf{0}}}{\mathbf{c}}{\mathbf{o}}{\mathbf{s}}{\mathbf{(}}{\mathbf{\omega}}{\mathbf{t}}{\mathbf{+}}{\mathbf{\varphi}}{\mathbf{)}}}$

**Part A**

The instantaneous value of the emf is the projection of the phasor on the horizontal axis.

The figure shows emf phasors a, b, and c.

**Part A**

For each, what is the instantaneous value of the emf?

**Part B**

At this instant, is the magnitude of emf represented by phasor a increasing, decreasing, or holding constant?

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