In words, Gauss's law states that the total electric flux out of a closed surface is equal to the charge enclosed divided by the permeability of a vacuum.

Gauss's law is usually written

${\mathrm{\Phi}}_{\mathrm{E}}=\oint \overrightarrow{\mathrm{E}}\xb7\mathrm{d}\overrightarrow{\mathrm{A}}=\frac{{\mathrm{q}}_{\mathrm{encl}}}{{\mathrm{\epsilon}}_{0}}$

where ε_{0} = 8.85x10-12 C^{2}/(N•m^{2}) is the permittivity of vacuum.

In Gauss's Law, to what does q_{encl} refer?

A. the net charge inside the closed surface

B. the charge residing on insulators inside the closed surface

C. all the charge in the physical system

D. any charge inside the closed surface that is arranged symmetrically

Frequently Asked Questions

What scientific concept do you need to know in order to solve this problem?

Our tutors have indicated that to solve this problem you will need to apply the Gauss' Law with Calculus concept. You can view video lessons to learn Gauss' Law with Calculus. Or if you need more Gauss' Law with Calculus practice, you can also practice Gauss' Law with Calculus practice problems.