e is the charge of an electron.
Protons exist in the nucleus of the atom and are not available for charge transfer.
Electrons are negatively charged. When electrons are added to a surface it becomes negatively charged. On the other hand, if a surface loses electrons, it is positively charged because it has more protons than electrons.
A plastic rod is charged to -20nC by rubbing.
a. Have electrons been added to the rod or protons removed? Explain.
b. How many electrons have been added or protons removed?
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