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Ch 24: The Second Law of ThermodynamicsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch 01: Intro to Physics; Units
Ch 02: 1D Motion / Kinematics
Ch 03: Vectors
Ch 04: 2D Kinematics
Ch 05: Projectile Motion
Ch 06: Intro to Forces (Dynamics)
Ch 07: Friction, Inclines, Systems
Ch 08: Centripetal Forces & Gravitation
Ch 09: Work & Energy
Ch 10: Conservation of Energy
Ch 11: Momentum & Impulse
Ch 12: Rotational Kinematics
Ch 13: Rotational Inertia & Energy
Ch 14: Torque & Rotational Dynamics
Ch 15: Rotational Equilibrium
Ch 16: Angular Momentum
Ch 17: Periodic Motion
Ch 19: Waves & Sound
Ch 20: Fluid Mechanics
Ch 21: Heat and Temperature
Ch 22: Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gases
Ch 23: The First Law of Thermodynamics
Ch 24: The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Ch 25: Electric Force & Field; Gauss' Law
Ch 26: Electric Potential
Ch 27: Capacitors & Dielectrics
Ch 28: Resistors & DC Circuits
Ch 29: Magnetic Fields and Forces
Ch 30: Sources of Magnetic Field
Ch 31: Induction and Inductance
Ch 32: Alternating Current
Ch 33: Electromagnetic Waves
Ch 34: Geometric Optics
Ch 35: Wave Optics
Ch 37: Special Relativity
Ch 38: Particle-Wave Duality
Ch 39: Atomic Structure
Ch 40: Nuclear Physics
Ch 41: Quantum Mechanics
Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Heat Engines & PV Diagrams
The Otto Cycle
The Carnot Cycle
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy Equations for Special Processes
Statistical Interpretation of Entropy

Concept #1: The Carnot Cycle and Maximum Theoretical Efficiency

Practice: A theoretical heat engine in space could operate between the Sun's 5500°C surface and the –270.3°C temperature of intergalactic space. What would be its maximum theoretical efficiency?

Practice: A Carnot engine with an efficiency of 70% is cooled by water at 10°C. What temperature must the hot reservoir be maintained at?

Example #1: Lifting Mass with a Heat Engine

Practice: Your friend claims they have a design for a reversible heat engine that can operate between the freezing and boiling temperatures of water that has an efficiency of 30%. Is this possible?