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Write structural formulas of the type indicated:

(c) condensed structural formulas for four constitutional isomers with the formula C 3H9N;

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Write structural formulas of the type indicated:

(b) condensed structural formulas for two constitutional isomers with the formula C 2H7N; 

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Write structural formulas of the type indicated:

(a) bond-line formulas for seven constitutional isomers with the formula C 4H10O;

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Write resonance structures for the azide ion, N3. Explain how these resonance structures account for the fact that both bonds of the azide ion have the same length.

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Ozone (O3) is found in the upper atmosphere where it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thereby provides the surface of Earth with a protective screen (cf. Section 10.11E). One possible resonance structure for ozone is the following:

(a) Assign any necessary formal charges to the atoms in this structure. 

(b) Write another equivalent resonance structure for ozone

(c) What do these resonance structures predict about the relative lengths of the two oxygen–oxygen bonds of ozone?

(d) In the structure above, and the one you have written, assume an angular shape for the ozone molecule. Is this shape consistent with VSEPR theory? Explain your answer

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Consider another chemical species like the ones in the previous problems in which a carbon atom forms three single bonds to three hydrogen atoms but in which the carbon atom possesses a single unpaired electron.

(a) What formal charge would the carbon atom have? 

(b) What total charge would the species have?

(c) Given that the shape of this species is trigonal planar, what would you expect the hybridization state of the carbon atom to be?

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Consider a chemical species like the one in the previous problem in which a carbon atom forms three single bonds to three hydrogen atoms, but in which the carbon atom possesses an unshared electron pair.

(a) What formal charge would the carbon atom have? 

(b) What total charge would the species have?

(c) What total charge would the species have?

(d) What would you expect the hybridization state of the carbon atom to be?

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Consider a chemical species (either a molecule or an ion) in which a carbon atom forms three single bonds to three hydrogen atoms and in which the carbon atom possesses no other valence electrons.

(a) What formal charge would the carbon atom have? 

(b) What total charge would the species have?

(c) What shape would you expect this species to have?

(d) What would you expect the hybridization state of the carbon atom to be?

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(b) Loss of a proton from cyanic acid yields the same anion as that obtained by loss of a proton from isocyanic acid. Explain.

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(a) Cyanic acid (H—O—C≡N) and isocyanic acid (H—N=C=O) differ in the positions of their electrons but their structures do not represent resonance structures. Explain.

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For the following write all possible resonance structures. Be sure to include formal charges where appropriate.

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For the following write all possible resonance structures. Be sure to include formal charges where appropriate.

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For the following write all possible resonance structures. Be sure to include formal charges where appropriate.

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For the following write all possible resonance structures. Be sure to include formal charges where appropriate.

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For the following write all possible resonance structures. Be sure to include formal charges where appropriate.

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For the following write all possible resonance structures. Be sure to include formal charges where appropriate.

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For the following write all possible resonance structures. Be sure to include formal charges where appropriate.

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Show the curved arrows that would convert  A into B.

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Write the resonance structure that would result from moving the electrons in the way indicated by the curved arrows.

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For the following write all possible resonance structures. Be sure to include formal charges where appropriate.

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Write structural formulas for at least three constitutional isomers with the molecular formula CH3NO2. (In answering this question you should assign a formal charge to any atom that bears one.)

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Write bond-line formulas for all of the constitutional isomers with the molecular formula C4H8.

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Rewrite each of the following using bond-line formulas:

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Rewrite each of the following using bond-line formulas:

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Rewrite each of the following using bond-line formulas:

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