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Some of the most important organic compounds in biochemistry are the α-amino acids, represented by the general formula shown.

Write structural formulas for the following α-amino acids.

(d) Isoleucine (R = sec -butyl)  

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Some of the most important organic compounds in biochemistry are the α-amino acids, represented by the general formula shown.

Write structural formulas for the following α-amino acids.

(c) Leucine (R = isobutyl)  

 

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Some of the most important organic compounds in biochemistry are the α-amino acids, represented by the general formula shown.

Write structural formulas for the following α-amino acids.

 (b) Valine (R = isopropyl)  

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Consider Lewis formulas A, B, and C:

(a) Are A, B, and C constitutional isomers, or are they resonance contributors?

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Some of the most important organic compounds in biochemistry are the α-amino acids, represented by the general formula shown.

Write structural formulas for the following α-amino acids. 

(a) Alanine (R = methyl)  

 

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Write a Lewis structure for each of the following organic molecules:

(c) C2Cl2F4 (Freon 114: formerly used as a refrigerant and as an aerosol propellant; each carbon bears one chlorine) 

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Write a Lewis structure for each of the following organic molecules: 

(b) C2HBrClF3 (halothane: a non flammable inhalation anesthetic; all three fluorines are bonded to the same carbon) 

 

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Write a Lewis structure for each of the following organic molecules: 

(a) C2H3Cl [vinyl chloride: starting material for the preparation of poly(vinyl chloride), or PVC, plastics]

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n-Butyl mercaptan is the common name of a foul-smelling substance obtained from skunk fluid. It is a thiol of the type RX, where R is an n -butyl group and X is the functional group that characterizes a thiol. Write a structural formula for this substance. 

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Isoamyl acetate is the common name of the substance most responsible for the characteristic odor of bananas. Write a structural formula for isoamyl acetate, given the information that it is an ester in which the carbonyl group bears a methyl substituent and there is a 3-methylbutyl group attached to one of the oxygens. 

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The connectivity of carbon oxysulfide is OCS.

(a) Write a Lewis structure for carbon oxysulfide that satisfies the octet rule. 

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(b) Mandelonitrile may be obtained from peach flowers. Derive its structure from the template in part (a) given that X is hydrogen, Y is the functional group that characterizes alcohols, and Z characterizes nitriles. 

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(a) Complete the structure of the pain-relieving drug  ibuprofen on the basis of the fact that ibuprofen is a carboxylic acid that has the molecular formula C13H18O2 , X is an isobutyl group, and Y is a methyl group. 

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Epichlorohydrin is the common name of an industrial chemical used as a component in epoxy cement. The molecular formula of epichlorohydrin is C3H5ClO. Epichlorohydrin has an epoxide functional group; it does not have a methyl group. Write a structural formula for epichlorohydrin. 

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(b) Neomenthol is a stereoisomer of menthol. That is, it has the same constitution but differs in the arrangement of its atoms in space. Neomenthol is the second most stable stereoisomer of 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol; it is less stable than menthol but more stable than any other stereoisomer. Write the structure of neomenthol in its most stable conformation. 

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Each of the following species will be encountered at some point in this text. They all have the same number of electrons binding the same number of atoms and the same arrangement of bonds; they are isoelectronic. Specify which atoms, if any, bear a formal charge in the Lewis structure given and the net charge for each species. 

(a) :N≡N:

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(a) Menthol, used to flavor various foods and tobacco, is the most stable stereoisomer of 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol. Draw its most stable conformation. Is the hydroxyl group cis or trans to the isopropyl group? To the methyl group? 

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A hydroxyl group is a somewhat “smaller” substituent on a six-membered ring than is a methyl group. That is, the preference of a hydroxyl group for the equatorial orientation is less pronounced than that of a methyl group. Given this information, write structural formulas for all the isomeric methylcyclohexanols, showing each one in its most stable conformation. Give the substitutive IUPAC name for each isomer. 

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Each of the following is a functional class name developed according to the 1993 and 2004 IUPAC recommendations. Alkyl group names of this type are derived by naming the longest continuous chain that includes the point of attachment, numbering in the direction so as to give the substituted carbon the lower number. The -e ending of the corresponding alkane is replaced by - yl, which is preceded by the number corresponding to the substitued carbon bracketed by hyphens. Write a structural formula for each alkyl halide.

 (c) 3,3-Dimethylcyclopentan-1-yl alcohol 

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Each of the following is a functional class name developed according to the 1993 and 2004 IUPAC recommendations. Alkyl group names of this type are derived by naming the longest continuous chain that includes the point of attachment, numbering in the direction so as to give the substituted carbon the lower number. The -e ending of the corresponding alkane is replaced by - yl, which is preceded by the number corresponding to the substitued carbon bracketed by hyphens. Write a structural formula for each alkyl halide.

 (b) 2,2-Dimethylpentan-3-yl bromide 

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Each of the following is a functional class name developed according to the 1993 and 2004 IUPAC recommendations. Alkyl group names of this type are derived by naming the longest continuous chain that includes the point of attachment, numbering in the direction so as to give the substituted carbon the lower number. The -e ending of the corresponding alkane is replaced by - yl, which is preceded by the number corresponding to the substitued carbon bracketed by hyphens. Write a structural formula for each alkyl halide.

(a) 6-Methylheptan-3-yl chloride

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Name each of the following compounds according to substitutive IUPAC nomenclature: 

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Name each of the following compounds according to substitutive IUPAC nomenclature: 

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Name each of the following compounds according to substitutive IUPAC nomenclature: 

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Name each of the following compounds according to substitutive IUPAC nomenclature: 

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