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Name each of the following compounds according to substitutive IUPAC nomenclature: 

(e) CF3CH2OH

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Name each of the following compounds according to substitutive IUPAC nomenclature: 

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Write structural formulas for each of the following alcohols and alkyl halides: 

(h) 2-Cyclopropylethanol

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Name each of the following compounds according to substitutive IUPAC nomenclature: 

(a) (CH3)2CHCH2CH2CH2Br

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Write structural formulas for each of the following alcohols and alkyl halides: 

(g) 1-Cyclopropylethanol 

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Write structural formulas for each of the following alcohols and alkyl halides:

(f) trans-4-tert-Butylcyclohexanol

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Write structural formulas for each of the following alcohols and alkyl halides: 

(e) 2,6-Dichloro-4-methyl-4-octanol 

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Write structural formulas for each of the following alcohols and alkyl halides: 

(d) trans-2-Chlorocyclopentanol 

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Write structural formulas for each of the following alcohols and alkyl halides: 

(c) 3-Heptanol

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Write structural formulas for each of the following alcohols and alkyl halides: 

(b) sec-Butyl alcohol 

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Write structural formulas for each of the following alcohols and alkyl halides: 

(a) Cyclobutanol

 

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Does the overlap of two  p orbitals in the fashion shown correspond to a σ bond or to a π bond? Explain. 

 

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Of the overlaps between an  s and a p orbital as shown in the illustration, one is bonding, one is antibonding, and the third is nonbonding (neither bonding nor antibonding). Which orbital overlap corresponds to which interaction? Why? 

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Each of the following reactions will be encountered at some point in this text. Classify each one according to whether the organic substrate is oxidized or reduced  in the process.

 

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Each of the following reactions will be encountered at some point in this text. Classify each one according to whether the organic substrate is oxidized or reduced  in the process.

c. HOCH2CH2OH + HlO4 → 2H2C=O + HlO3 + H2O

 

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Each of the following reactions will be encountered at some point in this text. Classify each one according to whether the organic substrate is oxidized or reduced  in the process.

 

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Each of the following reactions will be encountered at some point in this text. Classify each one according to whether the organic substrate is oxidized or reduced  in the process.

a. CH3C≡CH + 2Na + 2NH 3 → CH3CH=CH2 + 2NaNH2

 

 

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Compound A undergoes the following reactions: 

(a) Which of the reactions shown require(s) an oxidizing agent? 

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Which atoms in the following reaction undergo changes in their oxidation state? Which atom is oxidized? Which one is reduced?

2CH3CH2OH + 2Na → 2CH3CH2ONa + H2

 

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What is the hybridization of each carbon in CH 3CH=CHC≡CH?  What are the CCC bond angles? 

 

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Alkanes spontaneously burst into flame in the presence of elemental fluorine. The reaction that takes place between pentane and F2 gives CF4 and HF as the only products.  

(b) Is carbon oxidized, reduced, or does it undergo no change in oxidation state in this reaction? 

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Alkanes spontaneously burst into flame in the presence of elemental fluorine. The reaction that takes place between pentane and F2 gives CF4 and HF as the only products.  

(a) Write a balanced equation for this reaction. 

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The reaction shown is important in the industrial preparation of dichlorodimethylsilane for eventual conversion to silicone polymers.

2CH3Cl + Cl + Si → (CH 3)2SiCl2

(b) On the basis of the molecular model of (CH 3)2SiCl2, deduce the hybridization state of silicon in this compound. What is the principal quantum number n of the silicon s and p orbitals that are hybridized?

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Higher octane gasoline typically contains a greater proportion of branched alkanes relative to unbranched ones. Are branched alkanes better fuels because they give off more energy on combustion? Explain. 

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We have seen in this chapter that, among isomeric alkanes, the unbranched isomer is the least stable and has the highest boiling point; the most branched isomer is the most stable and has the lowest boiling point. Does this mean that one alkane boils lower than another because it is more stable? Explain. 

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