Ch. 3 - Acids and BasesSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch. 1 - A Review of General Chemistry
Ch. 2 - Molecular Representations
Ch. 3 - Acids and Bases
Ch. 4 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Ch. 5 - Chirality
Ch. 6 - Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Ch. 7 - Substitution Reactions
Ch. 8 - Elimination Reactions
Ch. 9 - Alkenes and Alkynes
Ch. 10 - Addition Reactions
Ch. 11 - Radical Reactions
Ch. 12 - Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides and Thiols
Ch. 13 - Alcohols and Carbonyl Compounds
Ch. 14 - Synthetic Techniques
Ch. 15 - Analytical Techniques: IR, NMR, Mass Spect
Ch. 16 - Conjugated Systems
Ch. 17 - Aromaticity
Ch. 18 - Reactions of Aromatics: EAS and Beyond
Ch. 19 - Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition
Ch. 20 - Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: NAS
Ch. 21 - Enolate Chemistry: Reactions at the Alpha-Carbon
Ch. 22 - Condensation Chemistry
Ch. 23 - Amines
Ch. 24 - Carbohydrates
Ch. 25 - Phenols
Ch. 26 - Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

Solution: Complete the following two structures by adding appropriate numbers of lone pair electrons, H atoms, and formal charges to the atoms in the boxes. You must adjust your answers to indicate the predominant species at each indicated pH value. (You do not have to add anything such as H atoms to atoms not drawn in the boxes.) This problem is testing your understanding of the relationship of protonation state to pH to pKa values for certain functional groups we have discussed. Next, in the space provided, write the overall charge on each structure at the indicated pH. For your reference, here are the relevant pKa values:

Problem

Complete the following two structures by adding appropriate numbers of lone pair electrons, H atoms, and formal charges to the atoms in the boxes. You must adjust your answers to indicate the predominant species at each indicated pH value. (You do not have to add anything such as H atoms to atoms not drawn in the boxes.) This problem is testing your understanding of the relationship of protonation state to pH to pKa values for certain functional groups we have discussed. Next, in the space provided, write the overall charge on each structure at the indicated pH. For your reference, here are the relevant pKa values: