Draw bond-line structures for all constitutional isomers with molecular formula C4H9Cl.
Alright. So, for this question it wants us to draw bond line structures for the constitutional isomer of this molecular formula right here, okay? C4H9Cl. Now, before we start on that just want to remind you guys, think of C4H10, that's a regular alkane, right? Notice that we have more than double the amount of hydrogens than we do carbons, so this structure is just going to look like this, right? A regular linear chain, so it's four carbons, but remember we're looking for constitutional isomers here, so we want these molecules to be connected differently for them to count as their own, so the only way to connect these for the carbons and say a branch would be something like this, where we take that carbon at the end, the one that used to be here and we actually go ahead and just add it in right there, so these are the constitutional isomers for C4H10 but now what are we doing on this structure? Well, it looks like we're replacing one of our hydrogens with a chlorine, right? So, keep in mind that we're going to be taking a look at this structure and we're also going to be taking a look at this structure and now we need to ask ourselves, where, how many times can we connect the chlorine here and make a different compound, right? one that's connected differently but have the same number of carbons same number of hydrogens, right? And chlorines? Well, let's take a look, we know that we can add our chlorine right here, right? And now that carbon used to have, if we look up here, three hydrogens on it, where now it only has two, so notice we replace one hydrogen with a chlorine, okay? Now, that chlorine would you guys degrade the same adding it to the other carbon, right? Those are the same, so, so far we have one constitutional isomer, let's take a look at this one. Now, let's say we add that chlorine to either carbon 2 or 3, right here, right? We still have a hydrogen there where before, remember, we had 2, okay? So that's another constitutional isomer. Now, would you guys agree that's the same thing as adding our chlorine right there? yep. So, so far you can see that we have 1, 2 constitutional isomers and that's it, right? We can't add the chlorine anywhere else without forming the structure, or the same structure, so let's move on to the next branch one. Now, let's do the same thing here, right? And I challenge you guys to try to do exactly what we just did on this branch structure and feel free to use this one to indicate the hydrogens, right? We're going to have methyl group sticking out and then in the middle just a regular hydrogen, so we're going to say that these hydrogens up here, these hydrogens A, B and C are going to be essentially the same as these hydrogens A, B, C and hydrogens A, B and C. Now, we can call that last hydrogen, let's call the hydrogen D, right? So, where do you think, which hydrogen can we replace to form a new structure? we can replace one chlorine here, we can put a chlorine right there, right? But remember we're replacing one of those hydrogens and again that would be the same as adding your chlorine right here or right here, right? Notice that all those hydrogens are essentially the same there even though they're A b and C, what you guys can see is all these positions no matter where we add our chlorine is going to give the same structure, so let's look again right here. Now, which other hydrogen on our structure is different? Well, just that one right in the center, so the only other place we can add a chlorine is right here, okay? So this would be our constitutional isomer 3 and constitutional isomer number 4. So, in total we can say that we have 4 constitutional isomers. Alright guys, so hopefully that made sense.