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Solution: Draw all carbon atoms, hydrogen atoms, and lone pairs for th...

Question

Draw all carbon atoms, hydrogen atoms, and lone pairs for the following compound:

Video Transcript

Alright. So, for this question we're going to draw our compound caffeine with all the carbons, hydrogens and lone pairs indicated on our molecule, okay? So this is caffeine, okay? I'm sure all of you are pretty familiar with there, right? Probably drink it on a daily or weekly basis but now we need to actually see what it looks like in how the carbons, hydrogens and lone pairs are in the structure. So, here we're going to start out by drawing our caffeine, we have this structure, right? Something like that where here we have another nitrogen, a double bond to this nitrogen. Alright, so that's your caffeine. Now, let's take a look at all the carbons, right? We have this carbon here, this carbon here, these are carbons as well and this is a carbon. Now, is that all the carbons for our structure? Well, no, right? Because these lines just going into space right off this nitrogen are actually methyl groups. Remember, that this is the carbon right here. So, in total we have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 carbons, okay? So hopefully you guys didn't miss the ones at 1, 3 and 7. Now, in order to draw this out with all the carbon is indicated we can go ahead and do this we have a nitrogen, carbon, carbon, double bond O and carbon, hopefully you guys are following it along, okay? Carbon, double bond, carbon bond and there's another carbon, another carbon, double bonded to an N and there we have it, okay? Did I miss anything? doesn't look like it, right? Okay, but now we need to draw in the hydrogens, so remember that carbon likes to have four bonds to it and if it only has, let's say one or two bonds, that's going to include enough hydrogens, so that it has four bonds, okay? Now, what I mean by that is take for instance our carbon at 1, it only has one bond to that nitrogen, so we should include three hydrogens, what about this one? it has four bonds, so we keep it, has four bonds so we keep it, here again just like one, 3 hydrogens and same thing up here Now, what about this carbon? it's got four bonds. So, does this one. Now, what about this one over here? that one only has three, right? So this one actually needs to have a hydrogen on it. Okay, so hopefully that makes sense, I'm going to go ahead and erase these but are we done? we're not done because we actually have some lone pairs to drop, so let's first start out with our oxygen atoms, we have two different oxygens, they're both double bonded to a carbon, so that oxygen has two bonds to it, when oxygen has two bonds we need to include two sets of lone pairs, so there's one and two, one and two and we're done with our oxygens but we still have nitrogens around. Now, a nitrogen is a little bit different than oxygen, it wants to have three bonds and then a set of one lone pair, okay? So, take for instance this nitrogen, it has three bonds, so there's our lone pair on it, this one, 3 bonds, so there's our lone pair and same thing for the other two, okay? So, here's that one lone pair on the nitrogen and the other set on this nitrogen. Now, there we have it, we actually drew in all the carbons, hydrogens and lone pairs for this compound guys, okay? So, just remember the rules I talked about and remember that all those dots on our molecule of our caffeine actually represent carbons there, even the ones at say 1, 7 and 3. Alright guys, so hopefully that made sense.

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