We can use reactions we’ve learned in the past (particularly acid-base reactions) to understand substitution. In fact, substitution is just a category of Lewis acid-base reactions!
Remember: Nucleophiles always attack electrophiles!
Let’s take a stroll through the reactions we’ve already learned so we can make this connection.
Reactions where a nucleophile attacks an electrophile with an acidic hydrogen, and removes it.
Reactions where a nucleophile attacks an electrophile without an acidic hydrogen, but with an empty orbital, to yield a covalent bond.
Concept: Nucleophiles and Electrophiles can react in Substitution Reactions.2m
Reactions where a nucleophile attacks an electrophile without an acidic hydrogen, or an empty orbital, so a covalent bond MUST be broken to preserve the octet of the electrophile.
Example: Predict the product. Identify all of the chemical species in the following reaction.6m