Ch. 6 - Thermodynamics and KineticsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch. 1 - A Review of General Chemistry
Ch. 2 - Molecular Representations
Ch. 3 - Acids and Bases
Ch. 4 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Ch. 5 - Chirality
Ch. 6 - Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Ch. 7 - Substitution Reactions
Ch. 8 - Elimination Reactions
Ch. 9 - Alkenes and Alkynes
Ch. 10 - Addition Reactions
Ch. 11 - Radical Reactions
Ch. 12 - Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides and Thiols
Ch. 13 - Alcohols and Carbonyl Compounds
Ch. 14 - Synthetic Techniques
Ch. 15 - Analytical Techniques: IR, NMR, Mass Spect
Ch. 16 - Conjugated Systems
Ch. 17 - Aromaticity
Ch. 18 - Reactions of Aromatics: EAS and Beyond
Ch. 19 - Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition
Ch. 20 - Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: NAS
Ch. 21 - Enolate Chemistry: Reactions at the Alpha-Carbon
Ch. 22 - Condensation Chemistry
Ch. 23 - Amines
Ch. 24 - Carbohydrates
Ch. 25 - Phenols
Ch. 26 - Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

If a reaction is exothermic, shouldn’t that be enough to determine favorability? Actually, no!

Even if a reaction is highly exothermic, the level of order it requires may make it statistically improbable.

Concept #1: Explaining what entropy is.

Entropy (ΔS) is the tendency of a system to take its most probable form.

  • Negative values (-) indicate less probable = Unfavored
  • Positive values (+) indicate more probable = Favored

There are 3 common ways to make reactions more probable (increase ΔS)

  • They all become more likely as we add heat to the reaction (increase T)

Concept #2: 3 ways to increase entropy.

1. Increasing the Number of Molecules

Reactions that create extra molecules are more probable since there are more ways to arrange them.

2. Phase Transition

Transformation of solid to liquid or liquid to gas is more probable since the molecules will have a greater vibrational freedom.

3. Increasing Molecular Freedom of Motion

Converting cyclic molecules to acyclic molecules are more probable since it increases freedom of rotation.