Electronegativity and Dipoles

All bonds are not created equal. Some bonds perfectly share their electrons, and others barely share them at all. A dipole moment is the mathematical expression that describes this disbalance. 

Types of Bonds

General rules:

  • Bonds to carbon and hydrogen are always covalent.
  • Bonds between two identical atoms are always covalent
    • Adjacent atoms on the periodic table are polar.
    • Lone pairs are polar.

The sum of all dipole moments is equal to the net dipole. If all dipoles perfectly cancel out, the molecule with have no net dipole.   

Problem: Which molecule/s contain/s net dipoles?

2m

Problem: Which molecule/s contain/s net dipoles?

2m

Problem: Which molecule/s contain/s net dipoles?

6m

Problem: Which of the solvents are apolar and polar?

3m