Ch. 4 - Alkanes and CycloalkanesWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch. 1 - A Review of General Chemistry
Ch. 2 - Molecular Representations
Ch. 3 - Acids and Bases
Ch. 4 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Ch. 5 - Chirality
Ch. 6 - Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Ch. 7 - Substitution Reactions
Ch. 8 - Elimination Reactions
Ch. 9 - Alkenes and Alkynes
Ch. 10 - Addition Reactions
Ch. 11 - Radical Reactions
Ch. 12 - Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides and Thiols
Ch. 13 - Alcohols and Carbonyl Compounds
Ch. 14 - Synthetic Techniques
Ch. 15 - Analytical Techniques: IR, NMR, Mass Spect
Ch. 16 - Conjugated Systems
Ch. 17 - Aromaticity
Ch. 18 - Reactions of Aromatics: EAS and Beyond
Ch. 19 - Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition
Ch. 20 - Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: NAS
Ch. 21 - Enolate Chemistry: Reactions at the Alpha-Carbon
Ch. 22 - Condensation Chemistry
Ch. 23 - Amines
Ch. 24 - Carbohydrates
Ch. 25 - Phenols
Ch. 26 - Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

As we’ve learned before, single bonds have the ability to freely rotate, meaning that we have to get used to seeing multiple arrangements of single bonds and understanding that they are all the same thing. 

These multiple arrangements are known as conformers.

Concept #1: Understanding what a conformer is. 

Now that we understand what a conformer is, let's see if we can distinguish them from regular isomers. 

Practice: Determine if the following pair of molecules is isomers or conformers?

Notice that the only difference between these was one rotation.

This next one is a bit more tricky because it has two rotations in it. See if you can identify them.

Practice: Determine if the following pair of molecules is isomers or conformers?

Remember: If double bonds are switching configuration, that’s an isomer. If single bonds are rotating, that a conformer

Practice: Determine if the following pair of molecules is isomers or conformers?

One more, hopefully these are getting a little easier!

Practice: Determine if the following pair of molecules is isomers or conformers?

We’ll be rotating single bonds all the time in this course, so I’m hoping now you are more comfortable recognizing that multiple rotations really equal the same thing.