Ch. 11 - Radical ReactionsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch. 1 - A Review of General Chemistry
Ch. 2 - Molecular Representations
Ch. 3 - Acids and Bases
Ch. 4 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Ch. 5 - Chirality
Ch. 6 - Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Ch. 7 - Substitution Reactions
Ch. 8 - Elimination Reactions
Ch. 9 - Alkenes and Alkynes
Ch. 10 - Addition Reactions
Ch. 11 - Radical Reactions
Ch. 12 - Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides and Thiols
Ch. 13 - Alcohols and Carbonyl Compounds
Ch. 14 - Synthetic Techniques
Ch. 15 - Analytical Techniques: IR, NMR, Mass Spect
Ch. 16 - Conjugated Systems
Ch. 17 - Aromaticity
Ch. 18 - Reactions of Aromatics: EAS and Beyond
Ch. 19 - Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition
Ch. 20 - Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: NAS
Ch. 21 - Enolate Chemistry: Reactions at the Alpha-Carbon
Ch. 22 - Condensation Chemistry
Ch. 23 - Amines
Ch. 24 - Carbohydrates
Ch. 25 - Phenols
Ch. 26 - Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

Most professors just want you to be able to determine the major product of a radical halogenation. However some are going to get a little more crazy!

Here I’ll teach you how to predict the exact percentages of monohalogenation products for differing halogens at room temperature. Again, only some professors will ask you for this. Be sure to refer to your class notes to see if this is something you should learn!

Concept #1: Explaining relative rates of halogenation.

Example #1: Draw all of the monochlorination products of butane. Calculate percentage yields of each product. 

By multiplying the number of equivalent hydrogens by its relative rate of halogenation, we can obtain a “relative reaction” rate. We compare the relative reactions to determine the percentage breakdown for each product.

I’ve made it really easy for you by building and filling out this chart. Eventually you should be able to fill in this chart yourself ;)

The percentages we yield correspond to the amount of each product we would expect if we were to run this halogenation ourselves.

Practice: What is the percentage yield of the major product?

Practice: What is the percentage yield of the major product?