|Ch. 1 - A Review of General Chemistry||4hrs & 47mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 2 - Molecular Representations||1hr & 12mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 3 - Acids and Bases||2hrs & 45mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 4 - Alkanes and Cycloalkanes||4hrs & 18mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 5 - Chirality||3hrs & 33mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 6 - Thermodynamics and Kinetics||1hr & 19mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 7 - Substitution Reactions||1hr & 46mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 8 - Elimination Reactions||2hrs & 24mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 9 - Alkenes and Alkynes||2hrs & 10mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 10 - Addition Reactions||3hrs & 33mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 11 - Radical Reactions||1hr & 57mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 12 - Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides and Thiols||2hrs & 34mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 13 - Alcohols and Carbonyl Compounds||2hrs & 14mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 14 - Synthetic Techniques||1hr & 28mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 15 - Analytical Techniques: IR, NMR, Mass Spect||7hrs & 18mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 16 - Conjugated Systems||5hrs & 49mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 17 - Aromaticity||2hrs & 24mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 18 - Reactions of Aromatics: EAS and Beyond||4hrs & 31mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 19 - Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition||4hrs & 54mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 20 - Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: NAS||2hrs & 3mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 21 - Enolate Chemistry: Reactions at the Alpha-Carbon||1hr & 56mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 22 - Condensation Chemistry||2hrs & 13mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 23 - Amines||1hr & 43mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 24 - Carbohydrates||5hrs & 56mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 25 - Phenols||15mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Ch. 26 - Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins||2hrs & 54mins||0% complete||WorksheetStart|
|Addition Reaction||7 mins||0 completed|
|Markovnikov||5 mins||0 completed|
|Hydrohalogenation||7 mins||0 completed|
|Acid-Catalyzed Hydration||17 mins||0 completed|
|Oxymercuration||20 mins||0 completed|
|Hydroboration||27 mins||0 completed|
|Hydrogenation||7 mins||0 completed|
|Halogenation||6 mins||0 completed|
|Halohydrin||17 mins||0 completed|
|Carbene||13 mins||0 completed|
|Epoxidation||8 mins||0 completed|
|Epoxide Reactions||9 mins||0 completed|
|Dihydroxylation||5 mins||0 completed|
|Ozonolysis||7 mins||0 completed|
|Ozonolysis Full Mechanism||25 mins||0 completed|
|Oxidative Cleavage||8 mins||0 completed|
|Alkyne Oxidative Cleavage||6 mins||0 completed|
|Alkyne Hydrohalogenation||3 mins||0 completed|
|Alkyne Halogenation||2 mins||0 completed|
|Alkyne Hydration||6 mins||0 completed|
|Alkyne Hydroboration||3 mins||0 completed|
|Thermodynamics of Addition-Elimination Equilibria|
|Stereospecificity vs. Stereoselectivity|
|Oxymercuration-Reduction Full Mechanism|
|Hydroboration-Oxidation Full Mechanism|
|Simmons-Smith Addition Mechanism|
|Anti Vicinal Dihydroxylation|
|LiBr and Acetic Acid for Anti Vinyl Dihaldes|
|Addition Reagent Facts|
|Predicting Stereoisomers of Addition Reactions|
|Addition to Concave vs. Convex Rings|
Alkynes contain two π-bonds, so when they are exposed to electrophiles, they do exactly what you would expect them to do: they react TWICE with them.
Concept #1: General properties of double addition reactions to alkynes.
It turns out that alkynes can react with halogens a lot the same way that double bonds can. Except for the fact that double bonds, remember, have one pi bond and triple bonds have two. What that means is that some reagents that we expose to alkyne are actually going to react twice. And that's what we're going to study right here.
Basically, there's two different reactions that alkynes will react twice with and these are going to produce double addition products. That just means that anything I was expecting to get from my double bond, just double that and that's going to be my expected product for a triple bond.
Now keep in mind, if we have carbocations in any of these mechanisms, which we will, that vinyl carbocations – now remember what the work vinyl means. It means something directly on a double bond. That means a carbocation that looks like this. Vinyl carbocations cannot easily rearrange. What that means is that don't be thinking about shifts in these mechanisms because they're really just not going to happen.
Keep in mind that for some of these reactions, vinyl carbocations will be created. While unstable, these cannot rearrage, so don’t worry about carbocation rearrangements when reacting with alkynes!
Concept #2: Double hydrohalogenation of alkynes.
Let's go ahead and look into the first one. The first one is a hydrohalogenation of an alkyne. Now a hydrohalogenation, remember, is just an HX with a triple bond. If I were to react that one time, I would expect to get a Markovnikov halogen added. But it turns out if you react this twice with alkynes, what you're going to wind up getting is actually gem-dihalides. Now remember that the word gem stands for geminal and that means that they're both on the same carbon.
Let's go ahead and see how this works. If I were to react this with one equivalent, I would expect to get that the triple bond attacks the H, kicks out the X, so I wind up getting a carbocation that looks like this with a positive charge here and an H here. Then that positive charge would grab – or I'm sorry, the X would grab the positive charge and I would get my intermediate, my first product.
But if I expose it to more than one equivalent, for example, let's say that I exposed it to two equivalents total, then it could react again. So then I would get this double bond attacking the H, kicking out the X. What I would wind up getting is a carbocation that now looks like this, where my X is there, my H is there. And once again, I would get my X – and now, by the way, there's two H's there. And now my X would attack there again.
So what I would wind up getting is a product that looks like this, where I have a five-membered ring with two X's in the Markovnikov position. That's the geminal dihalide part and that's a Markovnikov part. Then I would have two H's that came from my addition reaction.
And you might be wondering well, what about that carbon? Shouldn't it have 3 H's? Shouldn't it be CH3? Yeah. Well, that H was always there, though. That kind of looks messy. I'm just going to redraw that. That H was always there because that's the H that was originally on that triple bond anyway. I'm just saying that through this reaction, you wind up adding H twice and X twice. Does that make sense?
I hope so. I hope that that flows. It's really not a complicated reaction as long as you know what hydrohalogenation is.
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