Ch.1 - Intro to General ChemistryWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Jules Bruno

Scientific Method

When it comes to the scientific method itself, we could think of it as being presented within this outline. 

Scientific method steps

What is the scientific method

When it comes to scientific method, it’s just a process that we use to help us design and perform experiments. Its main focus is to help us minimize experimental errors and other types of biases that crop up when we’re doing any type of experiment. It’s supposed to help us gain greater understanding in terms of accuracy and precision when it comes to our results.

What are the steps of the scientific method

Here, the first thing we do when it comes to the scientific method is we make an observation. Once we make an observation, we ask ourselves a question. That question should lead us to some type of research in order to determine if our observation holds weight. 

From that, we can come up with our hypothesis which can be thought of as the answer that we think we’ll find when studying our observation. Once we do that, we continue with the  experimentation. We tasked our experimentation to see if it works or not. If it doesn't, if the experiment isn't working, we just have to continue onward with our experimentation.

This portion here may involve multiple runs, multiple tests. Once we get to the point where the experiment is working, and remember, the experiment itself is just a tool to help us invent a way of answering our question. 

From there we can have the analysis of results and conclusions. From our conclusions, we can either determine if our hypothesis is true. If it is, we could continue in revealing our results to the scientific community. If we prove that our hypothesis is false or not completely true, then we have to ask ourselves a new question and begin the whole method again by undergoing further research.

Why is the scientific method important

The scientific method itself is a long and arduous process, but again it’s supposed to help us to increase the accuracy of any types of results with our experiments. It’s supposed to help eliminate errors and biases so that we get to that one important theory that eventually we can call a fact if it holds weight. 

Just remember, the scientific method, it just helps us to get all this information with absolutely certainty. 


Jules Bruno

Jules felt a void in his life after his English degree from Duke, so he started tutoring in 2007 and got a B.S. in Chemistry from FIU. He’s exceptionally skilled at making concepts dead simple and helping students in covalent bonds of knowledge.


Additional Problems
Identify each statement as being most like an observation, a law, or a theory. a. All coastal areas experience two high tides and two low tides each day. b. The tides in Earth's oceans are caused mainly by the gravitational attraction of the moon. c. Yesterday, high tide in San Francisco Bay occurred at 2:43 A.M. and 3:07 P.M. d. Tides are higher at the full moon and new moon than at other times of the month. 
Explain the differences between a hypothesis, a law, and a theory.
The difference between a law and a theory is the difference between what and why. Explain.
Explain the fundamental steps of the scientific method.
The Scientific Method A) is just a theory. B) is a strict set of rules and procedures that lead to inarguable fact. C) isnʹt used much in modern chemistry. D) is based on continued observation and experiment. E) is a framework for proving an argument you know to be true.
Which of the following statements is TRUE? A) A scientific law is fact. B) Once a theory is constructed, it is considered fact. C) A hypothesis is speculation that is difficult to test. D) An observation explains why nature does something. E) A scientific law summarizes a series of related observations.
What is the difference between a theory and a scientific law? 
Which of the following represents a hypothesis? A. Sodium reacts with water to form sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas B. When wood burns, heat is given off C. Nickel has a silvery sheen D. Neon does not react with oxygen E. Metals tend to lose electrons 
Classify each of the following as an observation, a law, or a theory.(a) All matter is made of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms. (b) When iron rusts in a closed container, the mass of the container and its contents does not change.(c) In chemical reactions, matter is neither created nor destroyed.(d) When a match burns, heat is evolved.
Do you notice a pattern in these results?
A chemist decomposes several samples of carbon monoxide into carbon and oxygen and weighs the resultant elements. The results are shown below: Sample Mass of Carbon (g) Mass of Oxygen (g) 1 6 8 2 12 16 3 18 24
Next, the chemist decomposes several samples of hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and oxygen. The results are shown below: Sample Mass of Hydrogen (g) Mass of Oxygen (g) 1 0.5 8 2 1 16 3 1.5 24
Do you notice a similarity between these results and those for carbon monoxide in part a?
Can you formulate a law from the observations in A and B?
Can you formulate a hypothesis that might explain your law in C?
When astronomers observe distant galaxies, they can tell that most of them are moving away from one another. In addition, the more distant the galaxies, the more rapidly they are likely to be moving away from each other.Can you devise a hypothesis to explain these observations?
What is the main goal of chemistry?
Describe the scientific approach to knowledge.
Explain the differences between a hypothesis, a law, and a theory.
What observations did Antoine Lavoisier make?
What theory did John Dalton formulate?
What is wrong with the expression, "That is just a theory," if by theory you mean a scientific theory?
In 2005, J. Robin Warren and Barry J. Marshall shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and for establishing experimental proof that it plays a major role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. The story began when Warren, a pathologist, noticed that bacilli were associated with the tissues taken from patients suffering from ulcers. Look up the history of this case and describe Warrens first hypothesis.What sorts of evidence did it take to create a credible theory based on it?
Classify each of the following as an observation, a law, or a theory.(a) All matter is made of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms. (b) When iron rusts in a closed container, the mass of the container and its contents does not change.(c) In chemical reactions, matter is neither created nor destroyed.(d) When a match burns, heat is evolved.
When astronomers observe distant galaxies, they can tell that most of them are moving away from one another. In addition, the more distant the galaxies, the more rapidly they are likely to be moving away from each other.Can you devise a hypothesis to explain these observations?
Identify each of the following as being most like an observation, a law, or a theory.(a) All coastal areas experience two high tides and two low tides each day. (b) The tides in Earths oceans are caused mainly by the gravitational attraction of the moon. (c) Yesterday, high tide in San Francisco Bay occurred at 2:43 a.m. and 3:07 p.m. (d) Tides are higher at the full moon and new moon than at other times of the month.
Describe the scientific approach to knowledge.
How does it differ from other approaches?
Explain the differences between a hypothesis, a law, and a theory.
What is the difference between a hypothesis and theory?
Dr. DiMarchi proposed that switching the positions of two amino acids in human insulin would create an analog with a faster time profile.Is this a hypothesis or theory?
How do molecular models help chemists develop theories?
Label the following statements about insulin therapy for diabetics as quantitative or qualitative observations.
Classify the following statements about the worlds largest gold bar as quantitative or qualitative observations. (This gold bar was worth approximately $10.25 million in 2013.)
Which statement best explains the difference between a law and a theory?
Identify each of the following as being most like an observation, a law, or a theory.(a) All coastal areas experience two high tides and two low tides each day. (b) The tides in Earths oceans are caused mainly by the gravitational attraction of the moon. (c) Yesterday, high tide in San Francisco Bay occurred at 2:43 a.m. and 3:07 p.m. (d) Tides are higher at the full moon and new moon than at other times of the month.
Generally observed behavior that can be formulated into a statement, sometimes mathematical in nature, is called a(n)a) observation.b) measurement.c) theory.d) natural law.e) experiment.
(a) What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
(b) Explain the difference between a theory and a scientific law. Which addresses how matter behaves, and which addresses why it behaves that way?
Classify each statement as an observation, a law, or a theory.a. Chlorine is a highly reactive gas. b. If elements are listed in order of increasing mass of their atoms, their chemical reactivity follows a repeating pattern. c. Neon is an inert (or nonreactive) gas. d. The reactivity of elements depends on the arrangement of their electrons. 
A chemist proposes that increasing the proportion of butadiene in her glue formulation will make the glue stickier. The chemist's proposal is called a(n)a. theoryb. experimentc. lawd. hypothesis 
1.92Judge the following statement as true or false. If you believe a statement to be false, provide a corrected version.(f) A hypothesis is more weakly supported by experimental evidence than a theory.
A chemist decomposes several samples of carbon monoxide into carbon and oxygen and weighs the resultant elements. The results are shown below:SampleMass of Carbon (g)Mass of Oxygen (g)1682121631824Next, the chemist decomposes several samples of hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and oxygen. The results are shown below:SampleMass of Hydrogen (g)Mass of Oxygen (g)10.58211631.524Can you formulate a law from the observations in A and B? Can you formulate a hypothesis that might explain your law?
A chemist decomposes several samples of carbon monoxide into carbon and oxygen and weighs the resultant elements. The results are shown below:SampleMass of Carbon (g)Mass of Oxygen (g)1682121631824Do you notice a pattern in these results?
A chemist decomposes several samples of carbon monoxide into carbon and oxygen and weighs the resultant elements. The results are shown below:SampleMass of Carbon (g)Mass of Oxygen (g)1682121631824Next, the chemist decomposes several samples of hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and oxygen. The results are shown below:SampleMass of Hydrogen (g)Mass of Oxygen (g)10.58211631.524Do you notice a similarity between these results and those for carbon monoxide in Part A?
A chemist decomposes several samples of carbon monoxide into carbon and oxygen and weighs the resultant elements. The results are shown below:SampleMass of Carbon (g)Mass of Oxygen (g)1682121631824Next, the chemist decomposes several samples of hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and oxygen. The results are shown below:SampleMass of Hydrogen (g)Mass of Oxygen (g)10.58211631.524Can you formulate a law from the observations in A and B?
Which statement best explains the difference between a law and a theory?(a) A law is truth; a theory is mere speculation.(b) A law summarizes a series of related observations; a theory gives the underlying reasons for them.(c) A theory describes what nature does; a law describes why nature does it.
Identify each of the following statements as being most similar to a hypothesis, a law, or a theory. Explain your reasoning.(a) The pressure of a sample of gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas.
Identify each of the following statements as being most similar to a hypothesis, a law, or a theory. Explain your reasoning.(b) Matter consists of tiny particles that can combine in specific ratios to form substances with specific properties.
Identify each of the following statements as being most similar to a hypothesis, a law, or a theory. Explain your reasoning.(c) At a higher temperature, solids (such as salt or sugar) will dissolve better in water.
Identify each of the following statements as being most similar to a hypothesis, a law, or a theory. Explain your reasoning. (a) Falling barometric pressure precedes the onset of bad weather.
Identify each of the following statements as being most similar to a hypothesis, a law, or a theory. Explain your reasoning.(b) All life on earth has evolved from a common, primitive organism through the process of natural selection.
Identify each of the following statements as being most similar to a hypothesis, a law, or a theory. Explain your reasoning.(c) My truck’s gas mileage has dropped significantly, probably because it’s due for a tune-up
Classify each statement as an observation, a law, or a theory.
Classify the following statements as quantitative or qualitative observations.
Which is more likely to eventually be shown to be incorrect, a hypothesis or a theory?
Complete the sentence below.A(n) _________ reliably predicts the behavior of matter, while a(n) _________ provides an explanation for that behavior.
Classify each statement as an observation, a law, or a theory. a) Chlorine is a highly reactive gas. b) If elements are listed in order of increasing mass of their atoms, their chemical reactivity follows a repeating pattern. c) Neon is an inert (or nonreactive) gas. d) The reactivity of elements depends on the arrangement of their electrons. 
Determine whether the following measurements are qualitative or quantitative.