The Simple Gas Laws represent theories and equations that try to relate together pressure, temperature, volume and the amount of a gas when discussing their chemical properties and behaviors.

**Boyle’s Law**

Boyle’s Law, also known as Mariotte’s Law, the Boyle-Mariotte Law or Pressure-Volume Law, states that pressure (P) and volume (V) are inversely proportionally, which basically means they are opposites of one another, at constant moles (n) and temperature (T).

This pressure-volume relationship is commonly displayed in the following example of a closed container. Pressure represents the downward force applied to the container while volume represents the free space within it.

When plotting this inverse pressure-volume relationship onto a chart you obtain the following:

The inverse relationship between pressure and volume at a constant mass for a gas at a fixed temperature is illustrated by the expression:

**Boyle’s Law Formula**

The Ideal Gas Law is presented as:

If moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant then the formula simplifies into:

When dealing with two sets of data (2 pressures and 2 volumes) the Boyle’s Law formula becomes:

Now let’s use it in a practice problem.

**PRACTICE: **If an unknown gas were confined within a 5.15 L container at 3.20 atm, what would be the pressure if the volume were expanded to 11.23 L?

**STEP 1:** Identify the variables given.

**STEP 2:** Isolate the missing variable for the second pressure (P_{2}).

**Charles’ Law**

Charles Law, also known as the Temperature-Volume Law, states that volume (V) and temperature (T) are directly proportionally as long as pressure (P) and moles (n) are held constant. This temperature-volume relationship is commonly displayed by the application and removal of heat from a closed container with a moveable piston.

Being directly proportional means that as the temperature increases then the volume would also increase. This direct temperature-volume relationship can be plotted onto a chart and provide the following:

The direct relationship between temperature and volume at constant moles and pressure is illustrated by the expression:

**Charles’ Law Formula**

By rearranging the Ideal Gas Law we can isolate V and T:

If moles (n) and pressure (P) are held constant then the formula simplifies into:

Incorporating the two sets of data (2 volumes, 2 temperatures) produces the Charles’ Law formula as:

**PRACTICE: **If a 2.2 L container filled with gas at a temperature of 18.0 °C is heated to a temperature of 38.0 °C, what is the new volume of the container (in liters)?

**STEP 1:** Identify the variables given.

**STEP 2:** Gas behavior is examined under absolute temperature conditions and so we must convert all temperatures from Celsius to Kelvin.

**STEP 3:** Plug the given values into Charles’ Law formula.

**STEP 4:** Perform cross-multiplication between the two ratios.

**STEP 5:** Isolate the missing variable for the second volume (V_{2}).

**Avogadro’s Law**

Avogadro’s Law, also known as the Mole-Volume Law or Volume Amount Law, states that volume (V) and moles (n) are directly proportional as long as pressure (P) and temperature (T) are held constant. This mole-volume relationship is depicted with the addition or removal of gas molecules from a closed container with a moveable piston.

As more and more gas molecules are pumped into the container they push up against the moveable piston and thereby increase the volume inside the container. This direct mole-volume relationship can be plotted onto a chart and provide the following:

The direct relationship between the number of moles and volume at constant temperature and pressure is illustrated by the expression:

**Avogadro’s Law Formula**

By rearranging the Ideal Gas Law we can isolate V and n:

If temperature (T) and pressure (P) are held constant then the formula simplifies into:

Incorporating the two sets of data (2 volumes, 2 moles) produces the Avogadro’s Law formula as:

**PRACTICE: **How many moles will a sample of F_{2} gas occupy in a 2.50 L container, if 3.21 moles of F_{2} have a volume of 53.2 L?

**STEP 1:** Identify the variables given.

**STEP 2:** Plug the given values into Avogadro’s Law formula.

**STEP 3:** Perform cross-multiplication between the two ratios.

**STEP 4:** Isolate the missing variable for the second moles (n_{2}).

**Gay-Lussac’s Law**

This sometimes overlooked simple gas law, because it doesn’t involve a changing volume like the previous 3, states that pressure (P) and temperature (T) are directly proportional as long as volume (V) and moles (n) are held constant. This pressure-temperature relationship is depicted with the addition or removal of heat from a rigid, non-flexible container.

By increasing the temperature of a container the gas molecules will absorb the excess thermal energy and convert it into kinetic energy. With higher kinetic energies, the gas molecules will move faster and hit the walls of the container more frequently and with harder force. This in term leads to a higher overall pressure within the container.

This direct pressure-temperature relationship can be plotted onto a chart and provide the following:

The direct relationship between the pressure and temperature at constant volume and moles of gas is illustrated by the expression:

**Gay-Lussac’s Law Formula**

By rearranging the Ideal Gas Law we can isolate P and T:

If volume (V) and moles of gas (n) are held constant then the formula simplifies into:

Incorporating the two sets of data (2 pressures, 2 temperatures) produces the Gay-Lussac’s Law formula as:

**PRACTICE: **If an unknown gas possesses a pressure of 800 mmHg when the temperature is 20^{ }°C, what would be its pressure (in mmHg) when the temperature is increased to 110^{ }°C?

**STEP 1:** Identify the variables given.

**STEP 2: **Convert the Celsius values into Kelvin.

**STEP 3: **Plug the given variables into the Gay-Lussac’s Law Formula.

**STEP 4:** Perform cross-multiplication between the two ratios.

**STEP 5:** Isolate the missing variable for the second pressure (P_{2}).

By combining the Simple Gas Laws we are able to create the Ideal Gas Law and the Combined Gas Law. Through these equations we can examine gas behaviors as well as their properties dealing with molar mass, partial pressure, density, effusion, speed and velocity.

0.40 g of H2, 20.0 g CO2, and 14.00 g of O2 are placed into a 5.0 L container at 18°C. What is the partial pressure of CO2 gas and what is the total pressure in the container?

Into a 500.0 L container at 18°C are placed 0.40 g of H 2, 20.0 g CO 2 and 14.0 g of O2. What is the partial pressure of H 2?

A mixture of He and O 2 is placed in a 4.00 L flask at 32°C. The partial pressure of the He is 2.7 atm and the partial pressure of the O2 is 1.4atm. What is the mole fraction of O 2?
a. 0.224
b. 0.341
c. 0.481
d. 0.518
e. 0.659

What is the pressure in atm exerted by a mixture of 1.00 g H 2 and 5.00 g He when the mixture is contained in a volume of 5.00 L at 20.0°C?
a) 8.4
b) 7.84
c) 28.8
d) 0.574
e) 7.71
What is the partial pressure in atm exerted by the H 2 in the gaseous mixture described in the previous question?
a) no given answer is close
b) 0.115
c) 2.4
d) 5.76
e) 1.54

If the pressure exerted by ozone, O 3, in the stratosphere is 3.0 x 10 -3 atm and the temperature is 255 K, how many ozone molecules are in one liter?
a. 6.0 x 1018
b. 6.1 x 10 22
c. 8.6 x 1019
d. 1.4 x 1018
e. 2.7 x 10 20

A 55.0 L gas cylinder containing NO and 3.238 mol of N 2 has a total pressure of 2.14 atm at 303 K. What is the mole fraction of NO?
A) 4.729
B) 0.683
C) 0.0467
D) 1.491
E) 0.316

A 355 mL container holds 0.146 g of Ne gas and an unknown amount of Ar gas at 35°C, and a total pressure of 626 mmHg. Calculate the number of moles of Ar gas present.
a) 7.24 x 10 –3 mol Ar
b) 4.34 x 10 –3 mol Ar
c) 4.27 x 10 −3 mol Ar
d) 1.00 x 10 −2 mol Ar
e) 5.79 x 10 −3 mol Ar

A mixture of 30.0 g ammonia (MW 17 g/mol), 30.0 g oxygen (MW 32 g/mol) and 30.0 g propylene (MN 42 g/mol) occupies 10.0 L at 100.0°C. What is the partial pressure (atm) of the oxygen?
a. 2.18 atm
b. 8.56 atm
c. 5.88 atm
d. 2.87 atm
e. None of the above

What is the volume occupied by 12.5 g of argon gas at a pressure of 1.05 atm and a temperature of 322 K? Would the volume be different if the sample were 12.5 g of helium (under identical conditions)?

A gas mixture with a total pressure of 745mmHg contains each of the following gases at the indicated partial pressures: CO2, 125 mmHg; Ar, 214 mmHg; and O2, 187 mmHg. The mixture also contains helium gas. What is the partial pressure of the helium gas? What mass of helium gas is present in a 12.0-L sample of this mixture at 273 K?

A gas mixture contains 1.25 g N2 and 0.85 g O2 in a 1.55-L container at 18 °C. Calculate the mole fraction and partial pressure of each component in the gas mixture.

Blimps, which frequently fly over sporting events, hold approximately 1.75×105
ft3 of helium.
You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.If the gas is at 25
oC and 1.0 atm, what mass of helium is in the blimp?

A scuba divers tank contains 0.29 kg of O2 compressed into a volume of 2.3 L.Calculate the gas pressure inside the tank at 9 oC.

A scuba divers tank contains 0.29 kg of O2 compressed into a volume of 2.3 L.What volume would this oxygen occupy at 26 oC and 0.95 atm ?

In an experiment reported in the scientific literature, male cockroaches were made to run at different speeds on a miniature treadmill while their oxygen consumption was measured. In one hour the average cockroach running at 0.08km/hr consumed 0.8 mL of O2 per gram of insect weight at 1 atm pressure and 24 oC.How many moles of O2 would be consumed in 1 hr by a 5.3 -g cockroach moving at this speed?

In an experiment reported in the scientific literature, male cockroaches were made to run at different speeds on a miniature treadmill while their oxygen consumption was measured. In one hour the average cockroach running at 0.08km/hr consumed 0.8 mL of O2 per gram of insect weight at 1 atm pressure and 24 oC.This same cockroach is caught by a child and placed in a 1-qt fruit jar with a tight lid. Assuming the same level of continuous activity as in the research, will the cockroach consume more than 20% of the available O2 in a 48-hr period? (Air is 21 mol percent O2)

You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.
Complete the following table for an ideal gas:
P
V
n
T
2.10
atm
1.30
L
0.510
mol
? K
0.320
atm
0.260
L
? mol
32
oC
660
torr
? L
0.334
mol
360
K
? atm
585
mL
0.260
mol
290
K
Complete the second row of the table.

Calculate each of the following quantities for an ideal gas.
You may want to reference(Pages 403 - 407)Section 10.4 while completing this problem.Calculate the quantity of gas, in moles, if 127 L at 56.0 oC has a pressure of 11.25 kPa .

You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.Calculate the number of molecules in a deep breath of air whose volume is 2.30
L at body temperature, 37
oC, and a pressure of 740
torr.

Carbon dioxide makes up approximately
0.04% of Earths atmosphere. If you collect a 2.6 L
sample from the atmosphere at sea level (1.00 atm) on a warm
day (28 oC), how many CO2 molecules are in your sample?

Chlorine is widely used to purify municipal water supplies and to treat swimming pool water. Suppose that the volume of a particular sample of Cl2 gas is 8.70
L at 895
torr and 24
oC.
You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.How many grams of Cl2 are in the sample?

Many gases are shipped in high-pressure containers. Consider a steel tank whose volume is 55.0 gallons and which contains O2 gas at a pressure of 16,500 kPa at 24
oC.
You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.What mass of O2 does the tank contain?

A cylinder contains 29.0 L of oxygen gas at a pressure of 1.9 atm and a temperature of 305 K .How much gas (in moles) is in the cylinder?

Olympic cyclists fill their tires with helium to make them lighter. Assume that the volume of the tire is 860 mL , that it is filled to a total pressure of 125 psi , and that the temperature is 25 oC. Also, assume an average molar mass for air of 28.8 g/mol.
You may want to reference (Pages 196 - 236) Chapter 5 while completing this problem.Calculate the mass of air in an air-filled tire.

Olympic cyclists fill their tires with helium to make them lighter. Assume that the volume of the tire is 860 mL , that it is filled to a total pressure of 125 psi , and that the temperature is 25 oC. Also, assume an average molar mass for air of 28.8 g/mol.
You may want to reference (Pages 196 - 236) Chapter 5 while completing this problem.What is the mass difference between the two?

Olympic cyclists fill their tires with helium to make them lighter. Assume that the volume of the tire is 860 mL , that it is filled to a total pressure of 125 psi , and that the temperature is 25 oC. Also, assume an average molar mass for air of 28.8 g/mol.
You may want to reference (Pages 196 - 236) Chapter 5 while completing this problem.Calculate the mass of helium in a helium-filled tire.

The radius of a xenon atom is 1.310-8 cm. A 100-mL flask is filled with Xe at a pressure of 1.3 atm and a temperature of 276 K .Calculate the fraction of the volume that is occupied by Xe atoms. (Hint: The atoms are spheres.)

A steel container of volume 0.36 L can withstand pressures up to 89 atm before exploding.Find the mass of helium that can be stored in this container at 301 K .

What is the ideal gas law?

The graph shows PV/RT for carbon dioxide at three different temperatures.Rank
the curves in order of increasing temperature.

Explain why people may experience ear pain after a rapid change
in altitude.

Explain why scuba divers should never hold their breath when
they ascend to the surface.

Why is it impossible to breathe air through an extra-long snorkel
(longer than a couple of meters) while swimming under water?

If you measure pressure in bars instead of atmospheres,
calculate the corresponding value of R in L -bar/ mol -K.

Review the ideal gas law. Without referring back to the text, use
algebra to write the ideal gas law and solve for one of the variables.Using the Ideal Gas Law, solve for pressure.

A gas mixture with a total pressure of 760 mmHg contains each of the following gases at the indicated partial pressures: 126 mmHg
CO2, 220 mmHg
Ar, and 188 mmHg
O2. The mixture also contains helium gas.
You may want to reference (Pages 216 - 222) Section 5.6 while completing this problem.What mass of helium gas is present in a 12.6-L sample of this mixture at 274 K ?

Breathing air that contains 4.0% by volume CO2 over time causes rapid breathing, throbbing headache, and nausea, among other symptoms.
You may want to reference (Pages 539 - 541) Section 13.4 while completing this problem.What is the concentration of CO2 in such air in terms of molarity, assuming 1 atm pressure and a body temperature of 37 oC?

Assume that a single cylinder of an automobile engine has a volume of 525 cm3 .If the cylinder is full of air at 75 oC and 0.990 atm , how many moles of O2 are present? (The mole fraction of O2 in dry air is 0.2095.)

A gas mixture contains each of the following gases at the indicated partial pressures: N2, 221 torr ; O2, 131 torr ; and He, 131 torr .What mass of each gas is present in a 1.30 -L sample of this mixture at 25.0 oC?

You may want to reference (Pages 216 - 222) Section 5.6 while completing this problem.A sample of hydrogen gas is mixed with water vapor. The mixture has a total pressure of 755 torr , and the water vapor has a partial pressure of 26 torr . What amount (in moles) of hydrogen gas is contained in 1.67 L of this mixture at 298 K?

Assume that an exhaled breath of air consists of 74.7 % N2, 15.4 % O2, 3.8 % CO2, and 6.1 % water vapor.If the volume of the exhaled gas is 460 mL and its temperature is 37 oC, calculate the number of moles of CO2 exhaled.

When 0.550 g of neon is added to an 750-cm3 bulb containing a sample of argon, the total pressure of the gases is found to be 1.46 atm at a temperature of 320 K .Find the mass of the argon in the bulb.

A 275
mL gas sample contains argon and nitrogen at a temperature of 65 oC. The total pressure of the sample is 725 mmHg and the partial pressure of argon is 231 mmHg.
You may want to reference (Page 215) Section 5.6 while completing this problem.What mass of nitrogen is present in the sample?

A gas mixture contains 1.26 g
N2 and 0.86 g
O2 in a 1.56-L container at 18 oC.You want to reference (Pages 216 - 222) Section 5.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the partial pressure of N2.

A gas mixture contains 1.26 g
N2 and 0.86 g
O2 in a 1.56-L container at 18 oC.You want to reference (Pages 216 - 222) Section 5.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the partial pressure of O2.

A deep-sea diver uses a gas cylinder with a volume of 10.0 L and a content of 51.3 g of O2 and 32.7 g of He.
You may want to reference (Pages 410 - 412)Section 10.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the partial pressure of each gas and the total pressure if the temperature of the gas is 19 oC.

A piece of solid carbon dioxide with a mass of 5.60 g is placed in a 10.0-L vessel that already contains air at 710 torr and 24 oC.After the carbon dioxide has totally vaporized, what is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the container at 24 oC?

A sample of 3.10 g of SO2 (g) originally in a 5.20-L vessel at 26 oC is transferred to a 12.0-L vessel at 25 oC. A sample of 2.40 g
N2 (g) originally in a 2.60-L vessel at 20 oC is transferred to this same 12.0-L vessel.What is the partial pressure of SO2 (g) in the larger container?

A sample of 3.10 g of SO2 (g) originally in a 5.20-L vessel at 26 oC is transferred to a 12.0-L vessel at 25 oC. A sample of 2.40 g
N2 (g) originally in a 2.60-L vessel at 20 oC is transferred to this same 12.0-L vessel.What is the partial pressure of N2 (g) in this vessel?

A mixture containing 0.768
mol He(g), 0.286
mol Ne(g), and 0.116
mol Ar(g) is confined in a 10.00-L vessel at 25 oC.
You may want to reference (Pages 411 - 412) Section 10.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the partial pressure of He in the mixture.

A mixture containing 0.768
mol He(g), 0.286
mol Ne(g), and 0.116
mol Ar(g) is confined in a 10.00-L vessel at 25 oC.
You may want to reference (Pages 411 - 412) Section 10.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the partial pressure of Ne in the mixture.

A mixture containing 0.768
mol He(g), 0.286
mol Ne(g), and 0.116
mol Ar(g) is confined in a 10.00-L vessel at 25 oC.
You may want to reference (Pages 411 - 412) Section 10.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the partial pressure of Ar in the mixture.

A 1.25 -g sample of dry ice is added to a 765 -mL flask containing nitrogen gas at a temperature of 25.0 oC and a pressure of 735 mm Hg . The dry ice is allowed to sublime (convert from solid to gas) and the mixture is allowed to return to 25.0 oC.What is the total pressure in the flask?

A gas mixture in a 1.55 L at 301 K container contains 10.0 g of Ne and 10.0 g of Ar.
You may want to reference (Page 215) Section 5.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the partial pressure (in atm) of Ne and Ar in the container.

Calculate the pressure exerted by 1.00 mol of an ideal gas in a box
that is 0.300
L and 298 K.

A 35.3
g sample of solid CO2 (dry ice) is added to a container
at a temperature of 100 K with a volume of 4.2
L.
You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.If the container
is evacuated (all of the gas removed), sealed, and then
allowed to warm to room temperature T = 298 K so that
all of the solid CO2 is converted to a gas, what is the pressure
inside the container?

You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.
Complete the following table for an ideal gas:
P
V
n
T
2.10
atm
1.30
L
0.510
mol
? K
0.320
atm
0.260
L
? mol
32
oC
660
torr
? L
0.334
mol
360
K
? atm
585
mL
0.260
mol
290
K
Complete the first row of the table.

You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.
Complete the following table for an ideal gas:
P
V
n
T
2.10
atm
1.30
L
0.510
mol
? K
0.320
atm
0.260
L
? mol
32
oC
660
torr
? L
0.334
mol
360
K
? atm
585
mL
0.260
mol
290
K
Complete the third row of the table.

You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.
Complete the following table for an ideal gas:
P
V
n
T
2.10
atm
1.30
L
0.510
mol
? K
0.320
atm
0.260
L
? mol
32
oC
660
torr
? L
0.334
mol
360
K
? atm
585
mL
0.260
mol
290
K
Complete the fourth row of the table.

Calculate each of the following quantities for an ideal gas.
You may want to reference(Pages 403 - 407)Section 10.4 while completing this problem.Calculate the volume of the gas, in liters, if 1.60 mol has a pressure of 1.26 atm at a temperature of -5 oC.

Calculate each of the following quantities for an ideal gas.
You may want to reference(Pages 403 - 407)Section 10.4 while completing this problem.Calculate the absolute temperature of the gas at which 3.43×10−3 mol occupies 478 mL at 755 torr .

Calculate each of the following quantities for an ideal gas.
You may want to reference(Pages 403 - 407)Section 10.4 while completing this problem.Calculate the pressure, in atmospheres, if 2.65×10−3 mol occupies 414 mL at 136 oC.

You may want to reference (Pages 209 - 211)Section 5.4 while completing this problem.What is the temperature of 0.53 mol of gas at a pressure of 1.3 atm and a volume of 11.6 L ?

Many gases are shipped in high-pressure containers. Consider a steel tank whose volume is 55.0 gallons and which contains O2 gas at a pressure of 16,500 kPa at 24
oC.
You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.At what temperature would the pressure in the tank equal 155.0
atm?

You may want to reference (Pages 196 - 236) Chapter 5 while completing this problem.Use the ideal gas equation to calculate the pressure exerted by 1.255 mol of Cl2 in a volume of 5.005 L at a temperature of 273.5 K .

A piece of solid carbon dioxide with a mass of 5.60 g is placed in a 10.0-L vessel that already contains air at 710 torr and 24 oC.After the carbon dioxide has totally vaporized, what is the total pressure in the container at 24 oC?

A sample of 3.10 g of SO2 (g) originally in a 5.20-L vessel at 26 oC is transferred to a 12.0-L vessel at 25 oC. A sample of 2.40 g
N2 (g) originally in a 2.60-L vessel at 20 oC is transferred to this same 12.0-L vessel.What is the total pressure in the vessel?

A mixture containing 0.768
mol He(g), 0.286
mol Ne(g), and 0.116
mol Ar(g) is confined in a 10.00-L vessel at 25 oC.
You may want to reference (Pages 411 - 412) Section 10.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the total pressure of the mixture.

You may want to reference (Pages 209 - 211) Section 5.4 while completing this problem.What volume is occupied by 20.0 g of argon gas at a pressure of 1.26 atm and a temperature of 401 K ?

An 8.55 L tire contains 0.551 mol of gas at a temperature of 312 K .
You may want to reference (Pages 209 - 211) Section 5.4 while completing this problem.What is the
pressure (in atm) of the gas in the tire?

In Sample Exercise 10.16 in the textbook, we found that one mole of Cl2 confined to 22.41 L at 0 oC deviated slightly from ideal behavior. Calculate the pressure exerted by 1.00 mol Cl2 confined to a smaller volume, 6.00 L , at 25 oC.Use the ideal gas equation.

Calculate the pressure that CCl4 will exert at 41 oC if 1.20 mol occupies 33.6 L , assuming thatCCl4 obeys the ideal-gas equation;

To minimize the rate of evaporation of the tungsten filament, 1.5×10−5 mol of argon is placed in a 600- cm3 lightbulb.What is the pressure of argon in the lightbulb at 24 oC?

Carbon dioxide, which is recognized as the major contributor to global warming as a "greenhouse gas," is formed when fossil fuels are combusted, as in electrical power plants fueled by coal, oil, or natural gas. One potential way to reduce the amount of CO2 added to the atmosphere is to store it as a compressed gas in underground formations. Consider a 1000-megawatt coal-fired power plant that produces about 6×106 tons of CO2 per year.Assuming ideal gas behavior, 1.00 atm, and 37 oC, calculate the volume of CO2 produced by this power plant.

Carbon dioxide, which is recognized as the major contributor to global warming as a "greenhouse gas," is formed when fossil fuels are combusted, as in electrical power plants fueled by coal, oil, or natural gas. One potential way to reduce the amount of CO2 added to the atmosphere is to store it as a compressed gas in underground formations. Consider a 1000-megawatt coal-fired power plant that produces about 6×106 tons of CO2 per year.If the CO2 is stored underground as a liquid at 10 oC and 120 atm and a density of 1.2 g/cm3, what volume does it possess?

A 1.3-L container of liquid nitrogen is kept in a closet measuring 1.2 m by 1.2 m by 2.0 m . Assume that the container is completely filled to the top with liquid nitrogen, that the temperature is 25.1 oC, and that the atmospheric pressure is 1.2 atm .Calculate the percent (by volume) of air that would be displaced if all of the liquid nitrogen evaporated into the closet. The closet is ventilated such that the temperature and pressure remain constant through this process. (Liquid nitrogen has a density of 0.807 g/mL.)

A wine-dispensing system uses argon canisters to pressurize and preserve wine in the bottle. An argon canister for the system has a volume of 59.6 mL and contains 30.1 g of argon.Assuming ideal gas behavior, what is the pressure in the canister at 297 K ?

Large amounts of nitrogen gas are used in the manufacture of ammonia, principally for use in fertilizers. Suppose 130.00 kg of N2(g) is stored in a 1400.0 L metal cylinder at 290 oC.Calculate the pressure of the gas, assuming ideal-gas behavior.

What volume of air contains 12.6 g of oxygen gas at 273 K and 1.00 atm?

You may want to reference (Pages 209 - 211) Section 5.4 while completing this problem.What volume does 0.552 mol of gas occupy at a pressure of 716 mmHg at 56 oC?

What volume is occupied by 0.105 mol of helium gas at a pressure of 0.96 atm and a temperature of 306 K ?

What is the pressure in a 13.0-L cylinder filled with 0.500 mol of nitrogen gas at a temperature of 315 K ?

What is the pressure in a 21.0-L cylinder filled with 40.1 g of oxygen gas at a temperature of 331 K ?

A piece of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) with a mass of 28.5 g sublimes (converts from solid to gas) into a large balloon.Assuming that all of the carbon dioxide ends up in the balloon, what is the volume of the balloon at 23 oC and a pressure of 746 mmHg ?

Cyclists sometimes use pressurized carbon dioxide inflators to
inflate a bicycle tire in the event of a flat. These inflators use
metal cartridges that contain 16.0 g of carbon dioxide.At 297 K , to what pressure (in psi) can the carbon dioxide in the cartridge inflate a 3.51 L mountain bike tire? (Note: The gauge pressure is the difference between the total pressure and atmospheric pressure. In this case, assume that atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi.)

You may want to reference (Pages 209 - 211) Section 5.4 while completing this problem.Determine the pressure in mmHg of a 0.134 g sample of helium gas in a 647 mL container at 36 oC.

Twenty-five milliliters of liquid nitrogen (density = 0.807 g/mL) is poured into a cylindrical container with a radius of 11.6 cm and a length of 19.6 cm . The container initially contains only air at a pressure of 760.0 mmHg (atmospheric pressure) and a temperature of 298 K .If the liquid nitrogen completely vaporizes, what is the total force (in lb) on the interior of the container at 298 K ?

A 12.1-mL sample of liquid butane (density = 0.573 g/mL) is evaporated in an otherwise empty container at a temperature of 28.6 oC. The pressure in the container following evaporation is 890 torr .What is the volume of the container?

Room temperature is often assumed to be 25oC. Calculate
the molar volume of an ideal gas at 25oC and 1 atm pressure.

You may want to reference (Page 209) Section 5.4 while completing this problem.What is the pressure of 2.01 g of nitrogen gas confined to a volume of 0.205 L at 36 oC?

A mixture of oxygen gas, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide in a 10.0 L container at 25°C has a total pressure of 12.5 atm. If there are 30.0 g each of oxygen and nitrogen, how many grams of carbon dioxide are present?

A 118-mL flask is evacuated and found to have a mass of 97.129 g. When the flask is filled with 768 torr of helium gas at 35 °C, it has a mass of 97.171 g. Was the helium gas pure?

Calculate the volume occupied by 0.845 mol of nitrogen gas at a pressure of 1.37 atm and a temperature of 315 K.Given: n = 0.845 mol, P = 1.37 atm, T = 315 KFind: V

A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.05 g of argon at 25 °C . A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.450 atm. What is the partial pressure of argon, PAr , in the flask? What is the partial pressure of ethane, Pethane, in the flask?

A 750.0 mL metal bulb is filled with 0.421 g of CH 4 and an unknown mass of NH 3. If the total pressure in the bulb is 3.77 atm at 315°C, then how much NH3 is also in the bulb?1. 2.39 grams2. 0.00713 grams3. 0.549 grams4. 14.5 grams5. 1.17 grams6. 0.996 grams7. 0.0323 grams

A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.00 g of argon at 25°C. A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.250atm .
Part A
What is the partial pressure of argon, PAr, in the flask? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
PAr = _________________
PART B
What is the partial pressure of ethane, Pethane, in the flask? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate UNITS.
Pethane =_________________

The radius of a xenon atom is 1.3 X 10 –8 cm. A 100-mL flask is filled with Xe at a pressure of 1.0 atm and a temperature of 273 K. Calculate the fraction of the volume that is occupied by Xe atoms. (Hint: The atoms are spheres.)

How many moles of O2 will be present in a 3.00 L sample of the gas collected at 25°C and 0.900 atm?1. 0.110 mol2. 0.134 mol3. 83.9 mol4. 9.06 mol5. 1.32 mol

A 10-liter container is filled with 0.10 mol of H2(g) and heated to 3000 K causing some of the H2(g) to decompose into H(g). The pressure is found to be 3.0 atm. Find the partial pressure of the H(g) that foms from H2 at this temperature. (Assume two significant figures for the temperature.)

What pressure will 14.0 g of CO exert in a 3.5 L container at 75 degrees Celsius?

A sample of sodium azide (NaN 3), a compound used in automobile air bags was thermally decomposed and 15.3 mL of nitrogen gas was collected at 25°C and 755 torr. How many grams of nitrogen were collected? a. 16.85b. 12.8c. 0.0174d. 0.0168e. 6.21 x 10 -4

A 750.0 mL metal bulb is filled with 0.421 g of CH 4 and an unknown mass of NH 3. If the total pressure in the bulb is 3.77 atm at 315ºC, then how much NH3 is also in the bulb?1. 0.0323 grams2. 2.39 grams3. 14.5 grams4. 1.17 grams5. 0.549 grams6. 0.996 grams7. 0.00713 grams

Consider a gas in a container with an initial pressure, temperature and volume. What will happen to the pressure of the gas if the number of moles are quadrupled, the volume is tripled and the temperature is increased 5 times?A. the pressure will increase by 12 timesB. the pressure will increase by 6.7 timesC. the pressure will remain inchangedD. the pressure will increase by 2.4 timesE. the pressure will increase by 3.8 times

A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.20g of argon at 25°C. A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.400atm .a. What is the partial pressure of argon, PAr, in the flask?b. What is the partial pressure of ethane, Pethane, in the flask?

Hydrogen and oxygen gas are mixed in a 7.75 L flask at 65°C and contains 0.482 g of hydrogen and 4.98 g of oxyen. What is the partial pressure of oxygen in the flask?a. 33.5 atmb. 0.557 atmc. 67 atmd. 1.11 atme. 0.043 atm

A 40.2 L constant volume cylinder containing 2.21 mol He is heated until the pressure reaches 4.20 atm. What is the final temperature?A) 658 KB) 1074 KC) 804 KD) 931 KE) 258 K

Calculate the mass, in grams, of 2.74 L of CO gas measured at 33°C and 945 mmHg (R = 0.08206 L•atm•K-1•mol-1, 1 atm = 760 mmHg).a. 0.263 gb. 35.2 gc. 2.46 gd. 3.80 ge. 206 g

A 1.00 L flask is filled with 1.00 g of argon at 25 °C. A sample of ethane vapor is added to the same flask until the total pressure is 1.250 atm.
i) What is the partial pressure of argon, PAr, in the flask?
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.
ii) What is the partial pressure of ethane, Pethane, in the flask?
Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.

What is the pressure in a 15.0-L cylinder filled with 32.7 g of oxygen gas at a temperature of 302 K?

What is the temperature of 0.52 mol of gas at a pressure of 1.3 atm and a volume of 11.8 L?

How many moles of CO are contained in a 5.00 L tank at 155 °C and at 2.80 atm?

Into a 5.00 L container at 18oC are placed 0.200 mol H2, 20.0 g CO2, and 14.00 g O2. Calculate the total pressure in the container and the partial pressure of each gas.

Pressurized carbon dioxide inflators can be used to inflate a bicycle tire in the event of a flat. These inflators use metal cartridges that contain 16.0 g of carbon dioxide. At 298 K, to what pressure (in psi) can the carbon dioxide in the cartridge inflate a 3.45-L mountain bike tire? (Note: The gauge pressure is the difference between the total pressure and atmospheric pressure. In this case, assume that atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi.)

What pressure will 14.0 g of CO exert in a 3.5 L container at 75°C?A) 1.1 atmB) 2.3 atmC) 4.1 atmD) 6.4 atmE) 5.0 atm

What mass of NO2 is contained in a 13.0 L tank at 4.58 atm and 385 K?

A 1.20-g sample of dry ice is added to a 755-mL flask containing nitrogen gas at a temperature of 25.0 °C and a pressure of 725 mmHg. The dry ice sublimes (converts from solid to gas) and the mixture returns to 25.0 °C. What is the total pressure in the flask?

The air in a bicycle tire is bubbled through water and collected at 25 °C. If the total volume of gas collected is 5.45 L at a temperature of 25°C and a pressure of 745 torr, how many moles of gas were in the bicycle tire?

How many moles of CO are contained in a 5.00 L tank at 155 °C and 2.80 atm? a. 0.399 moles b. 1.10 moles c. 0.455 moles d. 0.289 moles e. 2.51 moles

For each of the items written below, state why it is wrong and write a version that is correct. What’s wrong?Write a correct version.

At a height of 300 km above Earth’s surface, an astronaut finds that the atmospheric pressure is about 10−8 mmHg and the temperature is 500 K. How many molecules of gas are there per milliliter at this altitude?

A 334-mL cylinder for use in chemistry lectures contains 5.257 g of helium at 23˚C.You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.How many grams of helium must be released to reduce the pressure to 65 atm assuming ideal gas behavior?

You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.The adult blue whale has a lung capacity of
5.0 x 103 L. Calculate the mass of air (assume an average molar mass 28.98 g/mol) contained in an adult blue whale’s lungs at 0.3 oC and 1.06
atm, assuming the air behaves ideally.

If the pressure exerted by ozone, O3, in the stratosphere is 3.0 x 10 -3 atm and the temperature is 251 K , how many ozone molecules are in a liter?

Many water treatment plants use chlorine gas to kill microorganisms before the water is released for residential use. A plant engineer has to maintain the chlorine pressure in a tank below the 85.0-atm rating and, to be safe, decides to fill the tank to 80.0% of this maximum pressure. (a) How many moles of Cl2 gas can be kept in an 850.-L tank at 298 K if she uses the ideal gas law in the calculation?

Standard conditions are based on relevant environmental conditions. If normal average surface temperature and pressure on Venus are 730. K and 90 atm, respectively, what is the standard molar volume of an ideal gas on Venus?

A cylinder of O2(g) used in breathing by emphysema patients has a volume of 3.00 L at a pressure of 10.0 atm. If the temperature of the cylinder is 28.0 °C, what mass of oxygen is in the cylinder?

What is the molarity of the cleaning solution formed when 10.0 L of ammonia gas at 33°C and 735 torr dissolves in enough water to give a final volume of 0.750 L?

The partial pressure of CH4(g) is 0.175 atm and that of O2(g) is 0.250 atm in a mixture of the two gases.b. If the mixture occupies a volume of 10.5 L at 65°C, calculate the total number of moles of gas in the mixture.

The vapor pressure of water at 25 oC is 23.76 torr. If 1.30 g of water is enclosed in a 2.0-L container, will any liquid be present?

You may want to reference (Pages 484 - 521) Chapter 11 while completing this problem.The vapor pressure of CCl3F at 300 K is 856 torr. If 12.5 g of CCl3 F is enclosed in a 1.2 L container, calculate the number of moles of CCl3F in the gas phase.

Air conditioners not only cool air, but dry it as well. Suppose that a room in a home measures 7.0 m x 10.0 m x 2.7 m. If the outdoor temperature is 30 oC and the vapor pressure of water in the air is 85 % of the vapor pressure of water at this temperature, what mass of water must be removed from the air each time the volume of air in the room is cycled through the air conditioner? The vapor pressure for water at 30 oC is 31.8 torr.

A steel cylinder contains 150.0 moles of argon gas at a temperature of 25°C and a pressure of 8.93 MPa. After some argon has been used, the pressure is 2.00 MPa at a temperature of 19°C. What mass of argon remains in the cylinder?

How many liters of gaseous hydrogen bromide at 29°C and 0.965 atm will a chemist need if she wishes to prepare 3.50 L of 1.20 M hydrobromic acid?

How many liters of HCl gas, measured at 30.0 °C and 745 torr, are required to prepare 1.25 L of a 3.20-M solution of hydrochloric acid?

Propane, C3H8, liquefies under modest pressure, allowing a large amount to be stored in a container. Calculate the number of moles of propane gas in a 120-L container at 3.10 atm and 27 oC.

Analysis of a newly discovered gaseous silicon-fluorine compound shows that it contains 33.01 mass % silicon. At 27°C, 2.60 g of the compound exerts a pressure of 1.50 atm in a 0.250-L vessel. What is the molecular formula of the compound?

In the 19th century, J. B. A. Dumas devised a method for finding the molar mass of a volatile liquid from the volume, temperature, pressure, and mass of its vapor. He placed a sample of such a liquid in a flask that was closed with a stopper fitted with a narrow tube, immersed the flask in a hot water bath to vaporize the liquid, and then cooled the flask. Find the molar mass of a volatile liquid from the following:Mass of empty flask = 65.347 gMass of flask filled with water at 25°C = 327.4 gDensity of water at 25°C = 0.997 g/mLMass of flask plus condensed unknown liquid = 65.739 gBarometric pressure = 101.2 kPaTemperature of water bath = 99.8°C

Suppose two 200.0-L tanks are to be filled separately with the gases helium and hydrogen. What mass of each gas is needed to produce a pressure of 2.70 atm in its respective tank at 248°C?

The average lung capacity of a human is 6.0 L. How many moles of air are in your lungs when you are in the followingsituations?a. At sea level (T = 298 K, P = 1.00 atm).

The average lung capacity of a human is 6.0 L. How many moles of air are in your lungs when you are in the followingsituations?b. 10. m below water (T = 298 K, P = 1.97 atm).

The average lung capacity of a human is 6.0 L. How many moles of air are in your lungs when you are in the followingsituations?c. At the top of Mount Everest (T = 200. K, P = 0.296 atm).

The steel reaction vessel of a bomb calorimeter, which has a volume of 75.0 mL, is charged with oxygen gas to a pressure of 14.5 atm at 22°C. Calculate the moles of oxygen in the reaction vessel.

Nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO)4 is one of the most toxic substances known. The present maximum allowable concentration in laboratory air during an 8-hr workday is 1 ppb (parts per billion) by volume, which means that there is one mole of Ni(CO)4 for every 109 moles of gas. Assume 24 oC and 1.00 atm pressure. What mass of Ni(CO)4 is allowable in a laboratory that is 14ft x 22ft x 11ft?

A gas sample containing 1.50 moles at 25°C exerts a pressure of 400. torr. Some gas is added to the same container and the temperature is increased to 50.°C. If the pressure increases to 800. torr, how many moles of gas were added to the container? Assume a constant-volume container.

Popcorn pops because the horny endosperm, a tough, elastic material, resists gas pressure within the heated kernel until the pressure reaches explosive force. A 0.25-mL kernel has a water content of 1.6% by mass, and the water vapor reaches 170°C and 9.0 atm before the kernel ruptures. Assume that water vapor can occupy 75% of the kernel’s volume. (a) What is the mass (in g) of the kernel?

Atmospheric scientists often use mixing ratios to express the concentrations of trace compounds in air. Mixing ratios are often expressed as ppmv (parts per million volume):On a certain November day, the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air in downtown Denver, Colorado, reached 3.0 x 102 ppmv. The atmospheric pressure at that time was 628 torr and the temperature was 0°C.b. What was the concentration of CO in molecules per cubic meter?

In the average adult male, the residual volume (RV) of the lungs, the volume of air remaining after a forced exhalation, is 1200 mL. (a) How many moles of air are present in the RV at 1.0 atm and 37°C?

Atmospheric scientists often use mixing ratios to express the concentrations of trace compounds in air. Mixing ratios are often expressed as ppmv (parts per million volume):On a certain November day, the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air in downtown Denver, Colorado, reached 3.0 x 102 ppmv. The atmospheric pressure at that time was 628 torr and the temperature was 0°C.c. What was the concentration of CO in molecules per cubic centimeter?

A sample of chlorine gas is confined in a 5.0-L container at 328 torr and 37°C. How many moles of gas are in the sample?

You have 357 mL of chlorine trifluoride gas at 699 mmHg and 45°C. What is the mass (in g) of the sample?

In preparation for a demonstration, your professor brings a 1.5-L bottle of sulfur dioxide into the lecture hall before class to allow the gas to reach room temperature. If the pressure gauge reads 85 psi and the temperature in the classroom is 23°C, how many moles of sulfur dioxide are in the bottle? (Hint: The gauge reads zero when the gas pressure in the bottle is 14.7 psi.)

When air is inhaled, it enters the alveoli of the lungs, and varying amounts of the component gases exchange with dissolved gases in the blood. The resulting alveolar gas mixture is quite different from the atmospheric mixture. The following table presents selected data on the composition and partial pressure of four gases in the atmosphere and in the alveoli:If the total pressure of each gas mixture is 1.00 atm, calculate:(c) The number of O2 molecules in 0.50 L of alveolar air (volume of an average breath of a person at rest) at 37°C

How many moles of gaseous boron trifluoride, BF3, are contained in a 4.3410-L bulb at 788.0 K if the pressure is 1.220 atm? How many grams of BF3?

An environmental chemist sampling industrial exhaust gases from a coal-burning plant collects a CO2-SO2-H2O mixture in a 21-L steel tank until the pressure reaches 850 torr at 45°C.(a) How many moles of gas are collected?

How many grams of gas are present in each of the following cases? (a) 0.100 L of CO2 at 307 torr and 26 °C

An anesthetic gas contains 64.81% carbon, 13.60% hydrogen, and 21.59% oxygen, by mass. If 2.00 L of the gas at 25°C and 0.420 atm weighs 2.57 g, what is the molecular formula of the anesthetic?

How many grams of gas are present in each of the following cases?(b) 8.75 L of C2H4, at 378.3 kPa and 483 K

How many grams of gas are present in each of the following cases?(c) 221 mL of Ar at 0.23 torr and –54 °C

A compressed gas cylinder contains 1.00 x 103 g argon gas. The pressure inside the cylinder is 2050. psi (pounds per square inch) at a temperature of 18°C. How much gas remains in the cylinder if the pressure is decreased to 650. psi at a temperature of 26°C?

A truck tire has a volume of 218 L and is filled with air to 35.0 psi at 295 K. After a drive, the air heats up to 318 K. (c) If the tire leaks 1.5 g of air per minute and the temperature is constant, how many minutes will it take for the tire to reach the original pressure of 35.0 psi (ℳ of air = 28.8 g/mol)?

The world burns approximately 3.7 x 1012 kg of fossil fuel per year.By what percentage does the concentration increase each year due to fossil fuel combustion? Approximate the average properties of the entire atmosphere by assuming that the atmosphere extends from sea level to 15 km and that it has an average pressure of 381 torr and average temperature of 275 K. Assume Earth is a perfect sphere with a radius of 6371 km.

A 20.0-L cylinder containing 11.34 kg of butane, C4H10, was opened to the atmosphere. Calculate the mass of the gas remaining in the cylinder if it were opened and the gas escaped until the pressure in the cylinder was equal to the atmospheric pressure, 0.983 atm, and a temperature of 27 °C.

While resting, the average 70-kg human male consumes 14 L of pure O2 per hour at 25 °C and 100 kPa. How many moles of O2 are consumed by a 70 kg man while resting for 1.0 h?

A hot-air balloon is filled with air to a volume of 4.00 x 10 3 m3 at 745 torr and 21°C. The air in the balloon is then heated to 62°C, causing the balloon to expand to a volume of 4.20 x 103 m3. What is the ratio of the number of moles of air in the heated balloon to the original number of moles of air in the balloon? (Hint: Openings in the balloon allow air to flow in and out. Thus the pressure in the balloon is always the same as that of the atmosphere.)

Consider the flasks in the following diagrams.a. Which is greater, the initial pressure of helium or the initial pressure of neon? How much greater?

A plasma-screen TV contains thousands of tiny cells filled with a mixture of Xe, Ne, and He gases that emits light of specific wavelengths when a voltage is applied. A particular plasma cell, 0.900mm x 0.300mm x 10.0mm, contains 4.00% Xe in a 1:1 Ne:He mixture at a total pressure of 500. torr. Assumptions: In order to calculate total moles of gas and total atoms, we assumed a
reasonable room temperature. Since 4.00% Xe was not defined, we conveniently assumed
mole percent. The 1:1 relationship of Ne to He is assumed to be by volume and not by
mass.Calculate the number of Xe atoms in the cell.

A plasma-screen TV contains thousands of tiny cells filled with a mixture of Xe, Ne, and He gases that emits light of specific wavelengths when a voltage is applied. A particular plasma cell, 0.900mm x 0.300mm x 10.0mm, contains 4.00% Xe in a 1:1 Ne:He mixture at a total pressure of 500. torr. Assumptions: In order to calculate total moles of gas and total atoms, we assumed a reasonable room temperature. Since 4.00% Xe was not defined, we conveniently assumed mole percent. The 1:1 relationship of Ne to He is assumed to be by volume and not by mass.Calculate the number of Ne atoms in the cell.

A plasma-screen TV contains thousands of tiny cells filled with a mixture of Xe, Ne, and He gases that emits light of specific wavelengths when a voltage is applied. A particular plasma cell, 0.900mm x 0.300mm x 10.0mm, contains 4.00% Xe in a 1:1 Ne:He mixture at a total pressure of 500. torr. Assumptions: In order to calculate total moles of gas and total atoms, we assumed a reasonable room temperature. Since 4.00% Xe was not defined, we conveniently assumed mole percent. The 1:1 relationship of Ne to He is assumed to be by volume and not by mass.Calculate the number of He atoms in the cell.

A 6.0-L flask contains a mixture of methane (CH4), argon, and helium at 45°C and 1.75 atm. If the mole fractions of helium and argon are 0.25 and 0.35, respectively, how many molecules of methane are present?

A person inhales air richer in O2 and exhales air richer in CO2 and water vapor. During each hour of sleep, a person exhales a total of about 300 L of this CO2-enriched and H2O-enriched air.C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) ⟶6CO2(g) + 6H2O(g)(a) If the partial pressures of CO2 and H2O in exhaled air are each 30.0 torr at 37.0°C, calculate the mass (g) of CO2 and of H2O exhaled in 1 h of sleep.

At 1450. mmHg and 286 K, a skin diver exhales a 208-mL bubble of air that is 77 % N2, 17% O2, and 6.0% CO2 by volume.(b) How many moles of N2 are in the bubble?

A 355-mL container holds 0.146 g of Ne and an unknown amount of Ar at 35°C and a total pressure of 626 mmHg. Calculate the number of moles of Ar present.

A sample of air contains 78.08% nitrogen, 20.94% oxygen, 0.05% carbon dioxide, and 0.93% argon, by volume. How many molecules of each gas are present in 1.00 L of the sample at 25°C and 1.00 atm?

What pressure (in atm) will 0.44 moles of CO2 exert in a 2.6 L container at 25oC?

A rigid vessel containing a 3:1 mol ratio of carbon dioxide and water vapor is held at 210˚C where it has a total pressure of 2.10 atm. If the vessel is cooled to 10˚C so that all of the water vapor condenses, what is the pressure of carbon dioxide? Neglect the volume of the liquid water that forms on cooling.

Acrylic acid (CH2=CHCOOH) is used to prepare polymers, adhesives, and paints. The first step in making acrylic acid involves the vapor-phase oxidation of propylene (CH2=CHCH3) to acrolein (CH2=CHCHO). This step is carried out at 330°C and 2.5 atm in a large bundle of tubes around which a heat-transfer agent circulates. The reactants spend an average of 1.8 s in the tubes, which have a void space of 100 ft3. How many pounds of propylene must be added per hour in a mixture whose mole fractions are 0.07 propylene, 0.35 steam, and 0.58 air?

A piece of solid carbon dioxide, with a mass of 7.8 g, is placed in a 4.0-L otherwise empty container at 27°C. What is the pressure in the container after all the carbon dioxide vaporizes? If 7.8 g solid carbon dioxide were placed in the same container but it already contained air at 740 torr, what would be the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and the total pressure in the container after the carbon dioxide vaporizes?

A mixture of 1.00 g H2 and 1.00 g He is placed in a 1.00-L container at 27°C. Calculate the partial pressure of each gasand the total pressure.

At 0°C a 1.0-L flask contains 5.0 x 10-2 mole of N2, 1.5 x 102 mg O2, and 5.0 x 1021 molecules of NH3. What is thepartial pressure of each gas, and what is the total pressure in the flask?

A commercial mercury vapor analyzer can detect, in air, concentrations of gaseous Hg atoms (which are poisonous) as low as 2 × 10−6 mg/L of air. At this concentration, what is the partial pressure of gaseous mercury if the atmospheric pressure is 733 torr at 26 °C?

A sample of 5.30
mL of diethylether (C2H5OC2H5; density = 0.7134g/mL) is introduced into a 6.30 L vessel that already contains a mixture of N2 and O2, whose partial pressures are PN2 =0.752 atm and PO2 =0.208 atm. The temperature is held at 35.0oC, and the diethylether totally evaporates.You may want to reference (Pages 411 - 412) Section 10.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the partial pressure of the diethylether.

A mixture consisting of 7.0 g of CO and 10.0 g of SO 2, two atmospheric pollutants, has a pressure of 0.33 atm when placed in a sealed container. What is the partial pressure of CO?

Gases such as CO are gradually oxidized in the atmosphere, not by O 2 but by the hydroxyl radical, ·OH, a species with one fewer electron than a hydroxide ion. At night, the ·OH concentration is nearly zero, but it increases to 2.5×1012 molecules/m3 in polluted air during the day. At daytime conditions of 1.00 atm and 22°C, what is the partial pressure and mole percent of ·OH in air?

In a certain experiment, magnesium boride (Mg 3B2) reacted with acid to form a mixture of four boron hydrides (BxHy), three as liquids (labeled I, II, and III) and one as a gas (IV).(a) When a 0.1000-g sample of each liquid was transferred to an evacuated 750.0-mL container and volatilized at 70.00°C, sample I had a pressure of 0.05951 atm; sample II, 0.07045 atm; and sample III, 0.05767 atm. What is the molar mass of each liquid?

After 0.600 L of Ar at 1.20 atm and 227°C is mixed with 0.200 L of O 2 at 501 torr and 127°C in a 400-mL flask at 27°C, what is the pressure in the flask?

An environmental chemist sampling industrial exhaust gases from a coal-burning plant collects a CO2-SO2-H2O mixture in a 21-L steel tank until the pressure reaches 850 torr at 45°C.(b) If the SO2 concentration in the mixture is 7.95×10 3 parts per million by volume (ppmv), what is its partial pressure? [Hint: ppmv = (volume of component/volume of mixture) × 10 6]

A spherical glass container of unknown volume contains helium gas at 25°C and 1.960 atm. When a portion of the helium is withdrawn and adjusted to 1.00 atm at 25°C, it is found to have a volume of 1.75 cm3. The gas remaining in the first container shows a pressure of 1.710 atm. Calculate the volume of the spherical container.

As 1 g of the radioactive element radium decays over 1 year, it produces 1.16 × 1018 alpha particles (helium nuclei). Each alpha particle becomes an atom of helium gas. What is the pressure in pascal of the helium gas produced if it occupies a volume of 125 mL at a temperature of 25 °C?

An aerosol spray can with a volume of 250 mL contains 2.30 g of propane gas (C3H8) as a propellant.You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.If the can is at 24 oC, what is the pressure in the can?

An aerosol spray can with a volume of 250 mL contains 2.30 g of propane gas (C3H8) as a propellant.You may want to reference (Pages 404 - 407) Section 10.4 while completing this problem.The can says that exposure to temperatures above 130 oF may cause the can to burst. What is the pressure in the can at this temperature?

The thermal decomposition of ethylene occurs during the compound’s transit in pipelines and during the formation of polyethylene. The decomposition reaction isCH2=CH2(g) ⟶ CH4(g) + C(graphite)If the decomposition begins at 10°C and 50.0 atm with a gas density of 0.215 g/mL and the temperature increases by 950 K, (a) What is the final pressure of the confined gas (ignore the volume of graphite and use the van der Waals equation)?

Helium is collected over water at 25°C and 1.00 atm total pressure. What total volume of gas must be collected to obtain 0.586 g helium? (At 25°C the vapor pressure of water is 23.8 torr.)

To study a key fuel-cell reaction, a chemical engineer has 20.0-L tanks of H 2 and of O2 and wants to use up both tanks to form 28.0 mol of water at 23.8°C. (a) Use the ideal gas law to find the pressure needed in each tank.

A 0.245-L flask contains 0.467 mol CO2 at 159 °C. Calculate the pressure: (a) using the ideal gas law

You may want to reference (Pages 484 - 521) Chapter 11 while completing this problem.A sealed flask contains 0.55 g of water at 28 oC. The vapor pressure of water at this temperature is 28.36 mmHg. What is the minimum volume of the flask in order that no liquid water be present in the flask?

A weather balloon containing 600. L of He is released near the equator at 1.01 atm and 305 K. It rises to a point where conditions are 0.489 atm and 218 K and eventually lands in the northern hemisphere under conditions of 1.01 atm and 250 K. If one-fourth of the helium leaked out during this journey, what is the volume (in L) of the balloon at landing?

A sample of 5.30 mL of diethylether (C2H5OC2H5; density = 0.7134g/mL) is introduced into a 6.30 L vessel that already contains a mixture of N2 and O2, whose partial pressures are PN2 =0.752 atm and PO2 =0.208 atm. The temperature is held at 35.0oC, and the diethylether totally evaporates.You may want to reference (Pages 411 - 412) Section 10.6 while completing this problem.Calculate the total pressure in the container.

Complete the following table for an ideal gas.

Complete the following table for an ideal gas.

Calculate the pressure exerted by 0.5000 mole of N2 in a 1.0000-L container at 25.0°Ca. using the ideal gas law.

A 5.0-L flask contains 0.60 g O2 at a temperature of 22°C. What is the pressure (in atm) inside the flask?

A 2.50-L container is filled with 175 g argon.a. If the pressure is 10.0 atm, what is the temperature?

Calculate the pressure exerted by 0.5000 mole of N2 in a 10.000-L container at 25.0°Ca. using the ideal gas law.

A 2.50-L container is filled with 175 g argon.b. If the temperature is 225 K, what is the pressure?

A person accidentally swallows a drop of liquid oxygen, O2(l), which has a density of 1.149 g/mL. Assuming the drop has a volume of 0.050 mL, what volume of gas will be produced in the person’s stomach at body temperature (37°C) and a pressure of 1.0 atm?

Chlorine is produced from sodium chloride by the electrochemical chlor-alkali process. During the process, the chlorine is collected in a container that is isolated from the other products to prevent unwanted (and explosive) reactions. If a 15.50-L container holds 0.5950 kg of Cl2 gas at 225°C, calculate:(a) PIGL (use R = 0.08206 mol·K/(atm·L))

Consider two separate gas containers at the following conditions:How is the pressure in container B related to the pressure in container A?

If 1.47×10−3 mol of argon occupies a 75.0-mL container at 26°C, what is the pressure (in torr)?

A 75.0-g sample of dinitrogen monoxide is confined in a 3.1-L vessel. What is the pressure (in atm) at 115°C?

A gas-filled weather balloon with a volume of 65.0 L is released at sea-level conditions of 745 torr and 25°C. The balloon can expand to a maximum volume of 835 L. When the balloon rises to an altitude at which the temperature is −5°C and the pressure is 0.066 atm, will it have expanded to its maximum volume?

At 1450. mmHg and 286 K, a skin diver exhales a 208-mL bubble of air that is 77 % N2, 17% O2, and 6.0% CO2 by volume.(a) What would the volume (in mL) of the bubble be if it were exhaled at the surface at 1 atm and 298 K?

Popcorn pops because the horny endosperm, a tough, elastic material, resists gas pressure within the heated kernel until the pressure reaches explosive force. A 0.25-mL kernel has a water content of 1.6% by mass, and the water vapor reaches 170°C and 9.0 atm before the kernel ruptures. Assume that water vapor can occupy 75% of the kernel’s volume. (b) How many milliliters would this amount of water vapor occupy at 25°C and 1.00 atm?

A weather balloon contains 8.80 moles of helium at a pressure of 0.992 atm and a temperature of 25 °C at ground level. What is the volume of the balloon under these conditions?

The volume of an automobile air bag was 66.8 L when inflated at 25 °C with 77.8 g of nitrogen gas. What was the pressure in the bag in kPa?

Iodine, I2, is a solid at room temperature but sublimes (converts from a solid into a gas) when warmed. What is the temperature in a 73.3-mL bulb that contains 0.292 g of I2 vapor at a pressure of 0.462 atm?

When 5.91 grams of hydrogen gas (H2) is contained in 3.75 liters at a temperature of -10.0°C, the measured pressure will be...

Hyperbaric therapy uses 100% oxygen at pressure to help heal wounds and infections, and to treat carbon monoxide poisoning. A hyperbaric chamber has a volume of 1430 L. How many kilograms of O2 gas are needed to give an oxygen pressure of 3.14 atm at 25°C?

A 7.35-L container holds a mixture of two gases at 17°C. The partial pressures of gas A and gas B, respectively, are 0.168 atm and 0.630 atm. If 0.170 mol of a third gas is added with no change in volume or temperature, what will the total pressure become?

A 0.203 g sample of carbon dioxide, CO2, has a volume of 564 mL and a pressure of 453 mmHg.What is the temperature of the gas in kelvins? Express your answer to three significant figures.What is the temperature of the gas in degrees Celsius? Express your answer to three significant figures.

The nitrogen gas in an automobile air bag, with a volume of 60. L, exerts a pressure of 858 mm Hg at 25 degree C. What amount of N_2 gas (in moles) is in the air bag?

A sample of a gas mixture contains the following quantities of three gases. The sample has: volume = 2.50 L temperature = 16.6 degree C. What is the partial pressure for each gas, in mmHg? What is the total pressure in the flask?

A. A balloon is floating around outside your window. The temperature outside is 13 ° C, and the air pressure is 0.700 atm. Your neighbor, who released the balloon, tells you that he filled it with 4.50 moles of gas. What is the volume of gas inside this balloon? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.B. A 18.0 L gas cylinder is filled with 8.00 moles of gas. The tank is stored at 49 ° C. What is the pressure in the tank? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.C. A 240. L kiln is used for vitrifying ceramics. It is currently operating at 1335 °C, and the pressure is 1.075 atm. How many moles of air molecules are within the confines of the kiln? Express your answer to three significant figures and include the appropriate units.

Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide, A 1.33-g sample of dry ice is placed in an evacuated 4.33 - L vessel at 21.0°C. Calculate the pressure inside the vessel after all the dry ice has been converted to CO2 gas.

If 60.5 moles of an ideal gas is at 9.89 atm at 47.00 °C, what is the volume of the gas?

What is the pressure in a 18.6 L cylinder filled with 20.4 g of oxygen gas at a temperature of 333 K? Express your answer with the appropriate units.

What volume is occupied by 21 g of methane (CH4) at 27°C and 1.25 atm?a. 0Lb. not enough data to calculatec. 2.3199999999999998 Ld. 37.2 L e. 25.800000000000001 L

A sample of carbon dioxide is contained in a 125.0 mL flask at 0.973 atm and 19.0°C. How many molecules of gas are in the sample?

Enter your answer in the provided box.Given that 8.33 moles of carbon monoxide gas are present in a container of volume 26.10 L, what is the pressure of the gas (in atm) if the temperature is 47°C?

A sample of carbon dioxide is contained in a 125.0 mL flask at 0.943 atm 17.4 degree C. How many molecules of gas are in the sample?

How many grams of helium are contained in a 2.0 L balloon at 30.0 ° C and at 735 mmHg?a. 66.1 gb. 26.5 gc. 0.477 gd. 0.312 g

A 2.45-L flexible flask at 15 C contains a mixture of N2, He, and Ne at partial pressures of 0.283 atm for N2, 0.151 atm for He, and 0.425 atm for Ne. (a) Calculate the total pressure of the mixture. atm (b) Calculate the volume in liters at STP occupied by He and Ne if the N2 is removed selectively. L

In the metallurgical process of refining nickel, the metal is first combined with carbon monoxide to form tetracarbonylnickel. which is a gas at 43°C:Ni(s) + 4CO(g) → Ni(CO)4(g)This reaction separates nickel from other solid impurities. Starting with 67.4 g of Ni, calculate the pressure of Ni(CO)4 in a container of volume 5.95 L. (Assume the above reaction goes to completion.)

A 50.0 L tank contains nitrogen gas at a pressure of 50.0 psi at 22°C. How many grams of nitrogen gas are in the tank? Do not include the units in your submitted answer.

If 74.5 moles of an ideal gas is at 1.01 atm at 5.40°C, what is the volume of the gas?

A sample of helium gas collected at a pressure of 0.976 atm and a temperature of 24.0°C is found to occupy a volume of 21.2 liters. How many moles of He gas are in the sample?

An 8.85 L tire contains 0.525 mol of gas at a temperature of 319 K. What is the pressure (in atm) of the gas in the tire? Express your answer with the appropriate units.

Automobile airbags contain solid sodium azide, NaN3, that reacts to produce nitrogen gas when heated, thus inflating the bag. 2NaN3 (s) → 2Na (s) + 3N2 (g) Calculate the value of work, w, for the following system if 33.2 g of NaN3 reacts completely at 1.00 atm and 22 °C.

0.976 mol sample of helium gas at a temperature of 24.0°C is found to occupy a volume of 21.2 liters. The pressure of this gas sample is ___ mm Hg.

For 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) ⇌ 2SO3 (g), Kp = 3.0 x 10 4 at 700 K. In a 2.00-L vessel the equilibrium mixture contains 1.18 g of SO3 and 0.107 g of O2. How many grams of SO2 are in the vessel?Express your answer using two significant figures.

At a certain temperature and pressure, one liter of CO2 gas weighs 1.15 g. What is the mass of one liter of CH4 gas at the same temperature and pressure?

What is the temperature of 0.43 mol of gas at a pressure of 1.0 atm and a volume of 11.7 L?Express your answer using two significant figures.

An automobile tire has a maximum rating of 38.0 psi (gauge pressure). Part AThe tire is inflated (while cold) to a volume of 11.8 L and a gauge pressure of 36.0 psi at a temperature of 120°C. While driving on a hot day the tire warms to 65.0°C and its volume expands to 12.2 L. What is the pressure in the tire after warming on a hot day? Express your answer in pound-force per square inch to 3 significant figures.

If an 100 mL light bulb contains 0.20 grams of argon gas and 0.1 grams of nitrogen gas at 30.0 °C, what is the total pressure (atm) of the mixture of gases? (a) None of the above (b) 2.13 atm (c) 0.213 atm (d) 0.211 atm

If 2.69 moles of an ideal gas has a pressure of 1.12 atm, and a volume of 49.85 L, what is the temperature of the sample in degrees Celsius?

What pressure is exherted by 0.350 moles of carbon dioxide gas in a 2.25 L flask at 94.0 C? a. 57.1b. 0.213c. 4.69d. 475 e. 1.20

How many grams of CO2 are contained in 550 mL of the gas at STP? a. 1.08 g b. 0.28 g c. 1080 gd. 0.56 g e. 0.125 g

If an ideal gas has a pressure of 3.61 atm, a temperature of 52.50°C, and has a volume of 79.31 L, how many moles of gas are in the sample?

A 1.16 g gas sample occupies 602 mL at 37°C and 1.00 atm. You may want to reference (page 213) Section 5.5 while completing this problem.What is the molar mass of the gas?(a) 0.0461 g/mol (b) 0.258 g/mol(c) 49.0 g/mol (d) 3.87 g/mol

A 5.00 L flask contains 3.50 g of sulfur trioxide, 2.45 g of carbon monoxide, and 3.99 g of argon all at 35 °C. What is the pressure (in atm) in the flask?

A 1.40 g sample of CO2 is contained in a 696 mL flask at 20.6°C. What is the pressure of the gas?

What volume is occupied by 0.968 mol of CO2 at 274.7 K and 743 mmHg?

If an ideal gas has a pressure of 2.93 atm, a temperature of 46.46oC and has a volume of 62.65 L, how many moles of gas are in the sample?

A sample of oxygen was collected over water at 25°C and 0.852 atm. If the total sample volume was 2.950 L, how many moles of O2 were collected?

A 8.20-L container holds a mixture of two gases at 31° C. The partial pressures of gas A and gas B, respectively, are 0.327 atm and 0.546 atm. If 0.100 mol of a third gas is added with no change in volume or temperature, what will the total pressure become?

Enter your answer in thr provided box.What is the volume of 5.37 moles of an ideal gas at 35.5°C and 1.00 atm?

If 6.01 moles of an ideal gas has a pressure of 1.43 atm, and a volume of 22.81 L, what is the temperature the sample?

If 7.72 motes of an ideal gas has a pressure of 2.78 atm, and a volume of 33.67 L, what is the temperature of the sample in degrees Celsius?

Enter your answer in the provided box.Given that 5.31 moles of carbon monoxide gas are present in a container of volume 12.10 L, what is the pressure of the gas (in atm) if the temperature is 55 °C?

At what temperature do 0.026695 mol of Ne in a 893.7 mL container exert a pressure of 0.90 atm?

lf 88.5 mol of an ideal gas occupies 86.5 L at 17.00 °C, what is the pressure of the gas?

Carbon monoxide gas is collected at 31.0°C in an evacuated flask with a measured volume of 10.0 L. When all the gas has been collected, the pressure in the flask is measured to be 0.050 atm. Calculate the mass and number of moles of carbon monoxide gas that were collected. Round your answer to 2 significant digits.

A weather balloon is inflated to a volume of 30.0 L at a pressure of 742 mmHg and a temperature of 29.9°C. The balloon rises in the atmosphere to an altitude where the pressure is 380. mmHg and the temperature is -13.6°C. Assuming the balloon can freely expand, calculate the volume of the balloon at this altitude.

A 9.40-L container holds a mixture of two gases at 15°C. The partial pressures of gas A and gas B. respectively, are 0.327 atm and 0.665 atm. If 0.210 mol of a third gas is added with no change in volume or temperature, what will the total pressure become?

A sample of argon gas collected at a pressure of 0.702 atm and a temperature of 291 K is found to occupy a volume of 653 millimeters. How many moles of Ar gas are in the sample?

If 75.5 mol of an ideal gas occupies 88.5 L at 71.00 °C, what is the pressure of the gas?

A sample of xenon gas collected at a pressure of 1.50 atm and a temperature of 275 K is found to occupy a volume of 860. Milliliters. How moles of Xe gas are in the sample?

At what temperature will 2.55 mole of an ideal gas in a 1.30 L container exert a pressure of 1.10 atm?

Part AIf the pressure exerted by ozone, O3. In the stratosphere is 3.0 x 10-3 atm and the temperature is 251 K, how many ozone molecules are in a liter? Express your answer using two significant figures.

Part Athe volume, in liters, occupied by 1.70 moles of N2 gas V = _______ LPart B the number of moles of CO2 in 3.80 L of CO2 gas v = _______ mol

If 29.5 mol of an ideal gas occupies 13.5 L at 79.00°C, what is the pressure of the gas?

A 22.4 L high pressure reaction vessel is charged with 0.3910 mol of iron powder and 1.20 atm of oxygen gas at standard temperature. On heating, the iron and oxygen react according to the balanced reaction below. 4Fe (s) + 3O2 (g) → 2Fe2O3 (s) After the reaction vessel is cooled, and assuming the reaction goes to completion, what pressure of oxygen remains?

To identify a diatomic gas (X2), a researcher carried out the following experiment: She weighed an empty 1.1-L bulb, then filled it with the gas at 1.90 atm and 24.0°C and weighed it again. The difference in mass was 2.3 g. Identify the gas. Express your answer as a chemical formula.

A sample of argon gas at STP occupies 34.0 L. What mass of argon is present in the

Calcium carbonate, CaCO3(s), decomposes upon heating to give CaO(s) and CO2(g). A sample of CaCO3 is decomposed, and the carbon dioxide is collected in a sealed 250 mL flask. After the decomposition is complete, the gas has a pressure of 1.6 atm at a temperature of 31 °C. How many moles of CO2 gas were generated? (Ideal gas equation: PV = nRT.)

If an ideal gas has a pressure of 4.29 atm, a temperature of 457 K, and has a volume of 60.27 L, how many moles of gas are in the sample?

How many grams of CO2 are contained in 550 mL of the gas at STP? a. 1.08g b. 0.28 g c. 1080 g d. 0.56 g e. 0.125 g

lf 8.28 moles of an ideal gas has a pressure of 1.57 atm, and a volume of 87.35 L, what is the temperature of the sample in degrees Celsius?

Calculate the volume occupied by 35.2 g of methane gas (CH4) at 25oC and 1.0 atm. R = 0.08206 Latm/molK0.0186 L4.5 L11.2 L48.2 L53.7 L

Enetr your answer in the provided box.A sample of nitrogen gas in a 2.7-L container at a temperature of 17°C exerts a pressure of 5.1 atm. Calculate the number of moles of gas in the sample.

If 4.33 moles of an ideal gas has a pressure of 3.14 atm, and a volume of 76.85 L, what is the temperature of the sample in degrees Celsius?

An environmental chemist sampling industrial exhaust gases from a coal-burning plant collects a CO2-SO2-H2O mixture in a 21.0-L steel tank until the pressure reaches 821.2 torr at 46.0°C. How many moles of gas are collected? ____________ mol gas If the SO2 concentration in the mixture is 1.57 x 103 parts per million by volume (ppmv), what is its partial pressure? ___________ torr

A sample of an ideal gas has a volume of 3.60 L at 14.40 C and 1.80 atm. What is the volume of the gas at 24.20°C and 0.988 atm?

If 3.63 moles of an ideal gas has a pressure of 1.25 atm, and a volume of 77.29 L. What is the temperature of the sample in degrees Celsius?

If an ideal gas has a pressure of 6.07 atm, a temperature of 10.42 °C, and has a volume of 69.83 L how many moles of gas are in the sample?