The Atom & Subatomic Particles

The atomic number represents the identity of the element and reveals the number of protons, whereas the atomic mass reveals the number of protons and neutrons. 

Structure of the Atom

The atom is the fundamental unit of an element and it’s composed of the 3 subatomic particles. 

Concept: Discussing Atomic Structure

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Video Transcript

Remember that the basic functional unit in Chemistry is the atom itself. Now, if we want to go deeper into the atom, remember it's composed of three subatomic particles. We're going to say in the center of our atom, the very center of our atom is what we have, that's called the nucleus.
If we take a look at this illustration on the right—that right there what I circled is the nucleus. We're going to say inside the nucleus, we have two out of the three subatomic particles. We have our protons and our neutrons. We're going to say spinning around it, we find the third subatomic particles, so we have the small green negatively charge balls, subatomic particles flying around our nucleus. These are the electrons.
We're going to say that the protons are positively charge. We're going to say that the electrons which are spinning around their nucleus are negatively charge and then we're going to say that the neutrons are non charge subatomic particles. They're neutral, they don't have a charge.
Inside the nucleus we have protons which are positive and neutrons which are neutral. The nucleus overall has a positive charge and then the electrons are spinning around it, the electrons are negatively charged. 

Atomic Number vs. Atomic Mass

Concept: Discussing Atomic Number & Atomic Mass

2m
Video Transcript

Now, what we're going to say here is we're dealing with two types of information on any given element. We're going to say we have the atomic number and we're going to have the atomic mass, oftentimes called the mass number.
We're going to say that the atomic number uses the variable Z and it equals the number of protons. So, the atomic number tells us the number of protons and also we determine the identity of an element. If you know the number of protons, then you know the element we're talking about, because each element has a specific number of protons. The atomic number kind of, is like the fingerprint for that element.
For example, if you look at periodic table at carbon, you'll see that carbon has associated with it, the number six. That six tells us that carbon has six protons. Carbon is the only element on the periodic table with six protons. Again, remember the atomic number, not only tells us the number of protons, but from that the identity of the element.
Now, we also have the atomic mass, also called the mass number at times. We're going to say it uses the variable A or we're going to say, 'This equals the number of protons and neutrons in an element.' So basically it gives us everything inside of the nucleus. Because remember the nucleus also has protons and neutrons.
Now, if we bring all of this together, we're going to say our element is, we usually use the variable X to represent our element, then we're going to have the atomic mass is A and then right below it is our atomic number. We usually see this kind of notation in class and on your exams. 

The number of protons gives the identity of an element. Ions arise when there is an unequal number of protons and electrons. 

Example: Identify the unknown element.

Element X (8 protons, 8 electrons, 8 neutrons) 

Element Y (35 protons, 36 electrons, 46 neutrons)

Element Z (12 protons, 10 electrons, 13 neutrons) 

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The Atom & Subatomic Particles Additional Practice Problems

The total numbers of neutrons, protons, and electrons in 27Al3+ are:

A. 14 neutrons, 13 protons, 13 electrons

B. 35 neutrons, 17 protons, 18 electrons

C. 14 neutrons, 13 protons, 10 electrons

D. 18 neutrons, 17 protons, 18 electrons

E. 13 neutrons, 10 protons, 14 electrons

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Complete the following table:

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How many atoms are contained in one formula unit of aluminum dichromate, Al2(Cr2O7)3?

a. 14

b. 25

c. 27

d. 29

e. none of these

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Which of the following statements is TRUE?

(A) atoms contain equal numbers of protons and neutrons

(B) the mass of an atom is equal to the number of protons + the number of electrons

(C) neutrons have a mass of 0 and a charge of 1

(D) to calculate the number of neutrons in an atom, use the mass in the periodic table

(E) the atomic number is the number of electrons in an atom

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How many neutrons and electrons are present in the cation 8637Rb+. The number of neutrons and electrons are, respectively:

a) 86, 36

b) 50, 38

c) 49, 36

d) 49, 38

e) 37, 49

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The ion has  3919 K+

A) 18 electrons, 18 protons, 21 neutrons

B) 19 electrons, 18 protons, 20 neutrons

C) 18 electrons, 19 protons, 20 neutrons

D) 19 electrons, 19 protons, 39 neutrons

E) 18 electrons, 19 protons, 19 neutrons

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Identify the charges of the protons, neutrons, and electrons.

A) protons +1, neutrons 0, electrons -1

B) protons 0, neutrons -1, electrons +1

C) protons -1, neutrons 0, electrons +1

D) protons 0, neutrons +1, electrons -1

E) protons +1, neutrons -1, electrons 0

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A substance that can't be chemically broken down into simpler substances is

A) a homogeneous mixture.

B) an element.

C) a heterogeneous mixture.

D) a compound.

E) an electron.

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What is the ratio of oxygen atoms to hydrogen atoms in the mineral aluminite Al2(SO4)(OH)4 . 7H2O?

a. 8:4

b. 15:18

c. 18:15

d. 15:11

e. 11:15

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What is the symbol of the ion having 12 protons and 10 electrons?

a. Mg2+

b. C4+

c. O2-

d. Ne

e. None of these

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The total number of atoms in one formula unit of Fe2(SO4)3 , is

a. 5.

b. 14.

c. 15.

d. 17.

e. 19.

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Which two of the atoms below have the same number of neutrons?

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Which of the following atoms contains the fewest protons?

a. 46Ti

b. 47Ti

c. 49Ti

d. 50Ti

e. all contain the same number of protons.

 

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What species is represented by the following information?

p+ = 47      n° = 62      e  = 46

a. Ag+

b. Nd

c. Pd

d. Ag

e. Pd+

 

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 Give the number of protons, the number of neutrons, the number of electrons, and the approximate mass (in amu) for the following particle.

71Ga3+     number of protons    : ______        number of electrons          : ______

                 number of neutrons  : ______        approximate mass (amu) : ______

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The table below describes four atoms. Which atoms represent the same element?

A) A and B represent the same element

B) A and C represent the same element

C) A and D represent the same element

D) B and C represent the same element

E) C and D represent the same element

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Consider each of the following statements:

            I.    An electron has a lower mass than a proton

            II.  Electrons are found inside the nucleus of an atom

            III. A neutral atom will have the same number of electrons as neutrons

Which answer lists all of the true statements above?

            A. I only         B. II only        C. I and II        D. I and III      E. All three are true

 

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All neutral atoms of tin have 50 protons and 50 electrons. (T/F)

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The mass of a neutron is equal to the mass of a proton plus the mass of an electron. (T/F)

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An isotope of an element contains 82 protons and 122 neutrons. What is the symbol for the isotope?
 

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Which of the drawings below represents a Ca 2+ ion?     

A) drawing (a)     

B) drawing (b)     

C) drawing (c)

D) drawing (d)   

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The atomic number indicates __________.  

A) the total number of neutrons and protons in a nucleus

B) the number of neutrons in a nucleus

C) the number of protons or electrons in a neutral atom

D) the number of atoms in 1 g of an element

E) the number of different isotopes of an element

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Determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in the following:   4018X

A) p+ = 18       n° = 22             e- = 40

B) p+ = 22       n° = 18             e- = 18

C) p+ = 40       n° = 22             e- = 18

D) p+ = 18       n° = 22             e- = 18

E) p+ = 18       n° = 18             e- = 22

 

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An iron-56 nucleus contains     

A) 56 protons and 56 neutrons.

B) 26 protons and 30 neutrons.

C) 56 protons and 26 neutrons.

D) 30 protons and 26 neutrons.

E) 26 protons and 26 neutrons.

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The mass number is equal to      

A) the sum of the number of the neutrons and electrons.

B) the sum of the number of the electrons and protons.

C) the sum of the number of protons and neutrons.

D) the sum of the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

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What species is represented by the following information? p+ = 47     n = 62     e- = 46

a. Ag+

b. Nd

c. Pd

d. Ag

e. Pd+

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The word isoelectronic means having an equal number of electrons. Which of the following statements is/are true below.

a. i & ii
b. i & iii
c. ii & iii
d. i only
e. iii only

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Complete the following table by filling in the missing information for each row.

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Vanadium can have multiple ions. When vanadium has this symbol:

51V5+

The atomic number (Z), mass number (A), number of neurons (n) and number of electrons (e) are:

a. Z = 23, A = 51, n = 28, e = 18

b. Z = 51, A = 23, n = 28, e = 23

c. Z = 28, A = 51, n = 28, e = 23

d. Z = 28, A = 23, n = 51, e = 18

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Which of the following answers give the correct number of subatomic particles for the isotope given below?

a. 13 protons, 27 neutrons and 13 electrons

b. 13 protons, 14 neutrons and 16 electrons

c. 13 protons, 14 neutrons and 10 electrons

d. 27 protons, 13 neutrons and 13 electrons

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Which statement concerning the structure of the atom is correct?

A. Protons and neutrons have most of the mass and occupy most of the volume of the atom.

B. Electrons have most of the mass but occupy most of the volume

C. Electrons have most of the mass but occupy very little of the volume of the atom

D. Protons and neutrons have most of the mass but occupy very little of the volume of the atom.

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Which ion has twenty-eight electrons?

A. Cr2+

B.Fe2+

C. Ni2+

D. Zn2+

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What do these have in common?

20Ne          19F-          24Mg2+

A. the same number of protons

B. the same number of neutrons

C. the same number of electrons

D. the same size

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What do these have in common?

A. The same number of protons

B. The same number of neutrons

C. The same number of electrons

D. The same size

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Osmium has six naturally occurring isotopes. When the most abundant isotope has this symbol:

190Os6+

The atomic number (Z), mass number (A), number of neutron (n) and number of electrons are:

A) Z=76, A=114, n=190, e=76

B) Z=190, A=76, n=114, e=76

C) Z=76, A=76, n=114, e=82

D) Z=76, A=190, n=114, e=70

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Which of the following statements is/are TRUE about subatomic particles?

a) An anion has the same number of protons and electrons.

b) Neutrons have the same mass as electrons.

c) Protons and electrons have opposite, but equal in magnitude, charges.

d) Neutrons and electrons are found in the nucleus. 

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Identify the following element: a halogen whose anion contains 36 electrons.

 

                A. Cl                 B. Kr                 C. Rb                 D. Br

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Which of the following is the symbol for the ion with a +4 charge, 30 neutrons and 21 electrons?

1. 55Mn4+           2. 51Cl4+           3. 51Mn4+           4. 58Ni4+

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One isotope of a metallic element has a mass number of 65 and 35 neutrons in the nucleus. The cation that this atom forms has 28 electrons. What is the symbol of the cation?

1. 65Zn           2. 65Ga3+           3. 65Zn2+           4. 65Ni2+

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How many protons, neutrons and electrons are there in the anion  31P3–?

A. 15 protons, 16 neutrons, 12 electrons

B. 16 protons, 15 neutrons, 18 electrons

C. 15 protons, 16 neutrons, 18 electrons

D. 12 protons, 19 neutrons, 15 electrons

E. 15 protons, 16 neutrons, 15 electrons

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Consider the species 44 Ca+2. How many electrons, protons, and neutrons does it contain?

a. 20P, 20N, 22e

b. 20P, 20N, 18e

c. 20P, 24N, 18e

d. 20P, 24N, 22e

e. 44P, 44N, 42e

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What is the name of the atom that has the atomic number 36?

 

a. chloride

b. chlorine

c. chromium

d. krypton

e. kryptonite

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What is the charge of a Boron (B) ion with 7 electrons?

a. -2

b. -1

c. 0

d. 1

e. 2

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How many protons are there in a gold (Au) nucleus?

a. 40

b. 55

c. 61

d. 79

e. 187

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What is the molar mass (g/mol) of a sample of aluminum where all the atoms have 15 neutrons?

a. 13

b. 15

c. 28

d. 32

e. none of these

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A hydrogen-3 cation has...

 

A. No electrons.

B. The same number of protons and neutrons.

C. Three protons.

D. Two electrons.

E. One neutron.

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