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Citric acid, which can be obtained from lemon juice, has the molecular formula C6H8O7. A 0.250-g sample of citric acid dissolved in 25.0 mL of water requires 37.2 mL of 0.105 M NaOH for complete neutralization. What number of acidic hydrogens per molecule does citric acid have?

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A 6.50-g sample of a diprotic acid requires 137.5 mL of a 0.750 M NaOH solution for complete reaction. Determine the molar mass of the acid.

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A 0.500-L sample of H2SO4 solution was analyzed by taking a 100.0-mL aliquot and adding 50.0 mL of 0.213 M NaOH. After the reaction occurred, an excess of OH ions remained in the solution. The excess base required 13.21 mL of 0.103 M HCl for neutralization. Calculate the molarity of the original sample of H2SO4. Sulfuric acid has two acidic hydrogens.

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A 10.00-mL sample of sulfuric acid from an automobile battery requires 35.08 mL of 2.12 M sodium hydroxide solution for complete neutralization. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid? Sulfuric acid contains two acidic hydrogens.

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What volume of 0.0521 M Ba(OH) 2 is required to neutralize exactly 14.20 mL of 0.141 M H3PO4? Phosphoric acid contains three acidic hydrogens.

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The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: 

ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solution

In the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueous
solutions.

d. 0.10 ppm DDT (C14H9Cl5) in H2O

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The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: 

ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solution

In the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueous
solutions.

c. 10.0 ppm As in H2O

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The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: 

ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solution

In the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueous
solutions.

b. 1.0 ppb CHCl3 in H2O

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The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: 

ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solution

In the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueous
solutions.

a. 5.0 ppb Hg in H2O

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Douglasite is a mineral with the formula 2KCl • FeCl 2 • 2H2O. Calculate the mass percent of douglasite in a 455.0-mg sample if it took 37.20 mL of a 0.1000 M AgNO3 solution to precipitate all the Cl as AgCl. Assume the douglasite is the only source of chloride ion.

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Carminic acid, a naturally occurring red pigment extracted from the cochineal insect, contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It was commonly used as a dye in the first half of the nineteenth century. It is 53.66% C and 4.09% H by mass. A titration required 18.02 mL of 0.0406 M NaOH to neutralize 0.3602 g carminic acid. Assuming that there is only one acidic hydrogen per molecule, what is the molecular formula of carminic acid?

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When hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium metal, hydrogen gas and aqueous magnesium chloride are produced. What volume of 5.0 M HCl is required to react completely with 3.00 g of magnesium?

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A mixture contains only NaCl and Fe(NO 3)3. A 0.456-g sample of the mixture is dissolved in water, and an excess of NaOH is added, producing a precipitate of Fe(OH)3. The precipitate is filtered, dried, and weighed. Its mass is 0.107 g. Calculate the following. 

c. the mass percent of Fe(NO 3)3 in the sample

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A mixture contains only NaCl and Fe(NO 3)3. A 0.456-g sample of the mixture is dissolved in water, and an excess of NaOH is added, producing a precipitate of Fe(OH)3. The precipitate is filtered, dried, and weighed. Its mass is 0.107 g. Calculate the following. 

b. the mass of Fe(NO 3)3 in the sample

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A mixture contains only NaCl and Fe(NO 3)3. A 0.456-g sample of the mixture is dissolved in water, and an excess of NaOH is added, producing a precipitate of Fe(OH)3. The precipitate is filtered, dried, and weighed. Its mass is 0.107 g. Calculate the following. 

a. the mass of iron in the sample

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A 1.00-g sample of an alkaline earth metal chloride is treated with excess silver nitrate. All of the chloride is recovered as 1.38 g of silver chloride. Identify the metal.

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A 230.-mL sample of a 0.275 MCaCl 2 solution is left on a hot plate overnight; the following morning, the solution is 1.10 M. What volume of water evaporated from the 0.275 M CaCl2 solution?

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Acetylsalicylic acid is the active ingredient in aspirin. It took 35.17 mL of 0.5065 M sodium hydroxide to react completely with 3.210 g of acetylsalicylic acid. Acetylsalicylic acid has one acidic hydrogen. What is the molar mass of acetylsalicylic acid?

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An average human being has about 5.0 L of blood in his or her body. If an average person were to eat 32.0 g of sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11, 342.30 g/mol), and all that sugar were dissolved into the bloodstream, how would the molarity of the blood sugar change?

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Consider the reaction between oxygen (O2) gas and magnesium metal to form magnesium oxide. Using oxidation states, how many electrons would each oxygen atom gain, and how many electrons would each magnesium atom lose? How many magnesium atoms are needed to react with one oxygen molecule? Write a balanced equation for this reaction.

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Specify which of the following equations represent oxidation–reduction reactions, and indicate the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the species being oxidized, and the species being reduced.

d. 2H+(aq) + 2CrO42-(aq) → Cr2O72-(aq) + H2O(l)

 

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Specify which of the following equations represent oxidation–reduction reactions, and indicate the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the species being oxidized, and the species being reduced.

c. Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

 

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Specify which of the following equations represent oxidation–reduction reactions, and indicate the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the species being oxidized, and the species being reduced.

b. 2AgNO3(aq) + Cu(s) → Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)

 

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Specify which of the following equations represent oxidation–reduction reactions, and indicate the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the species being oxidized, and the species being reduced.

a. CH4(g) + H2O(g) → CO(g) + 3H2(g)

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Assign oxidation numbers to all the atoms in each of the following.

l. Cr2O3

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