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Citric acid, which can be obtained from lemon juice, has the molecular formula C6H8O7. A 0.250-g sample of citric acid dissolved in 25.0 mL of water requires 37.2 mL of 0.105 M NaOH for complete neutralization. What number of acidic hydrogens per molecule does citric acid have?

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A 6.50-g sample of a diprotic acid requires 137.5 mL of a 0.750 M NaOH solution for complete reaction. Determine the molar mass of the acid.

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A 10.00-mL sample of sulfuric acid from an automobile battery requires 35.08 mL of 2.12 M sodium hydroxide solution for complete neutralization. What is the molarity of the sulfuric acid? Sulfuric acid contains two acidic hydrogens.

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What volume of 0.0521 M Ba(OH) 2 is required to neutralize exactly 14.20 mL of 0.141 M H3PO4? Phosphoric acid contains three acidic hydrogens.

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The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: 

ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solution

In the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueous
solutions.

d. 0.10 ppm DDT (C14H9Cl5) in H2O

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The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: 

ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solution

In the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueous
solutions.

c. 10.0 ppm As in H2O

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The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: 

ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solution

In the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueous
solutions.

b. 1.0 ppb CHCl3 in H2O

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The units of parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) are commonly used by environmental chemists. In general, 1 ppm means 1 part of solute for every 106 parts of solution. Mathematically, by mass: 

ppm = μg solute / g solution = mg solute / kg solution

In the case of very dilute aqueous solutions, a concentration of 1.0 ppm is equal to 1.0 μg of solute per 1.0 mL, which equals 1.0 g solution. Parts per billion is defined in a similar fashion. Calculate the molarity of each of the following aqueous
solutions.

a. 5.0 ppb Hg in H2O

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Carminic acid, a naturally occurring red pigment extracted from the cochineal insect, contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It was commonly used as a dye in the first half of the nineteenth century. It is 53.66% C and 4.09% H by mass. A titration required 18.02 mL of 0.0406 M NaOH to neutralize 0.3602 g carminic acid. Assuming that there is only one acidic hydrogen per molecule, what is the molecular formula of carminic acid?

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When hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium metal, hydrogen gas and aqueous magnesium chloride are produced. What volume of 5.0 M HCl is required to react completely with 3.00 g of magnesium?

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A mixture contains only NaCl and Fe(NO 3)3. A 0.456-g sample of the mixture is dissolved in water, and an excess of NaOH is added, producing a precipitate of Fe(OH)3. The precipitate is filtered, dried, and weighed. Its mass is 0.107 g. Calculate the following. 

c. the mass percent of Fe(NO 3)3 in the sample

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A mixture contains only NaCl and Fe(NO 3)3. A 0.456-g sample of the mixture is dissolved in water, and an excess of NaOH is added, producing a precipitate of Fe(OH)3. The precipitate is filtered, dried, and weighed. Its mass is 0.107 g. Calculate the following. 

b. the mass of Fe(NO 3)3 in the sample

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A mixture contains only NaCl and Fe(NO 3)3. A 0.456-g sample of the mixture is dissolved in water, and an excess of NaOH is added, producing a precipitate of Fe(OH)3. The precipitate is filtered, dried, and weighed. Its mass is 0.107 g. Calculate the following. 

a. the mass of iron in the sample

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A 1.00-g sample of an alkaline earth metal chloride is treated with excess silver nitrate. All of the chloride is recovered as 1.38 g of silver chloride. Identify the metal.

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A 230.-mL sample of a 0.275 MCaCl 2 solution is left on a hot plate overnight; the following morning, the solution is 1.10 M. What volume of water evaporated from the 0.275 M CaCl2 solution?

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Which of the following statements is (are) true? For the false statements, correct them.

d. All ionic compounds are strong electrolytes in water.

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Which of the following statements is (are) true? For the false statements, correct them.

c. An acid is a strong electrolyte.

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Which of the following statements is (are) true? For the false statements, correct them.

b. A strong electrolyte will break up into ions when dissolved in water.

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Which of the following statements is (are) true? For the false statements, correct them.

a. A concentrated solution in water will always contain a strong or weak electrolyte.

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Balance the following oxidation–reduction reactions that occur in basic solution.

c. CN-(aq) + MnO4-(aq) → CNO-(aq) + MnO2(s)

 

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Balance the following oxidation–reduction reactions that occur in basic solution.

b. MnO4-(aq) + S2-(aq) → MnS(s) + S(s)

 

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Balance the following oxidation–reduction reactions that occur in basic solution.

a. Cr(s) + CrO42-(aq) → Cr(OH)3(s)

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Balance the following oxidation–reduction reactions that occur in acidic solution.

e. CH3OH(aq) + Cr2O72-(aq) → CH2O(aq) + Cr3+(aq)

 

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Balance the following oxidation–reduction reactions that occur in acidic solution.

d. Br-(aq) + MnO4-(aq) → Br2(l) + Mn2+(aq)

 

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Balance the following oxidation–reduction reactions that occur in acidic solution.

c. As2O3(s) + NO3-(aq) → H3AsO4(aq) + NO(g)

 

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