Ch.20 - Organic ChemistrySee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Structural Formula

See all sections
Sections
Introduction to Organic Chemistry
Structural Formula
Chirality
Optical Isomers
Hydrocarbon
The Alkyl Group
Naming Alkanes
Naming Alkenes
Naming Alkynes
Alkane Reactions
Alkenes and Alkynes
Benzene Reactions
Functional Groups
Alcohol Reactions
Carboxylic Acid Derivative Reactions
Additional Practice
Stereoisomers
Organic Chemistry Nomenclature
Polymer

An organic compound can be written in different ways. Each one is a unique expression of the bonds each element is making. 

Molecular Formulas

Concept #1: Structural Formula vs. Condensed Formula vs. Skeletal Formula. 

In the structural formula all the individual bonds are shown. This representation is sometimes called the expanded chemical formula. 

In the condensed formula the bonds are pushed in to give a more compact representation of the bonds. 

In the skeletal formula all carbons and the hydrogens connected to them are not shown. Only elements different from carbon and the hydrogens connected to them can be represented. 

Example #1: Determine the molecular formula for the following organic compound. 

Example #2: Convert the following structural formula into its condensed formula. 

Example #3: Determine the molecular formula for the following organic compound. 

Example #4: Determine the molecular formula for the following organic compound. 

Example #5: Convert the following structural formula into the carbon skeleton formula, otherwise known as a kekulé structure. 

Additional Problems
Convert the following structural formula into its condensed formula.  
Convert the following structural formula into its condensed formula.  
Convert the following structural formula into its condensed formula.  
Convert the following structural formula into the carbon skeleton formula, otherwise known as a kekulé structure.  
Convert the following structural formula into the carbon skeleton formula, otherwise known as a kekulé structure.   
Convert the following structural formula into the carbon skeleton formula, otherwise known as a kekulé structure.  
Convert the following structural formula into the carbon skeleton formula, otherwise known as a kekulé structure.  
Based on your knowledge of chemical structures draw the three isomers of C5H12 (pentane).  
Based on your knowledge of chemical structures draw the five isomers of C6H14(hexane).
What is the number of pi bonds for the following compound?
Determine ALL the constitutional isomers for C6H14. 
Determine ALL the constitutional isomers for C4H10. 
Determine ALL the constitutional isomers for C7H16. 
Convert each of the condensed structures into a bond line (line angle) structure.a)  CH3(CH2)2CHClCH3                                               b)  CH  3C=CHCH2CH2C(Br)2CH3
Convert each of the condensed structures into a bond line (line angle) structure.a)  CH3CH2CH2CH(CH3)C(Cl2)CH3                                                   b)  CH  2=C(CH2CH3)CH2CH2OH
Convert the following structural formulas into their condensed formulas. 
What is the number of structural isomers with the molecular formula C 6H14?a) threeb) fourc) fived) six
Draw the following bond line skeletal structures as condensed structures. 
Provide 4 constitutional isomers that are alkenes with the molecular formula of C4H8         Bonus: Can you determine two cycloalkanes from this formula? 
Draw all constitutional isomers with molecular formula C 3H8O, and rank them in terms of increasing acidity.
Which choice is a pair of isomers? a. H2NCH2CH3 and CH3CH2NH2 b. CH3CH2CH2OH and CH3CH2OCH2CH3 c. ethanol and propene d. 1-butene and 2-methylpropane e. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 and CH3CH2CH(CH3)2
Convert the following structural formula into its condensed formula. 
Write the structural formulas of three different compounds that each have the molecular formula C5H12.
Write the skeletal structures for the following three condensed structural formulas. a. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 b. (CH3)2CHCH2CH2CH(CH3)2 c. H—C≡C—CH2—CH(CH3)2      
Draw line structure for CH 3COH(CH2CH3)2 and which oxygen containing functional groups are present?
There are two different common crystalline forms of carbon – diamond and graphite. A less common form called fullerene, C60, also exists. Different forms of the same element in the same physical state are called:a. isotopes.b. isomers.c. alloforms.d. allotropes.e. structural formulas.
How many carbon atoms are present in the molecule shown below:a. 1b. 2c. 3d. 4e. 5