Thermodynamics is the branch of physical science concerned with heat and its transformations to and from other forms of energy.
Concept #1: Understanding Spontaneity
A reaction that requires no outside energy source is classified as a natural process and is spontaneous.
A reaction that requires a continuous energy source to happen is classified as an unnatural process and is nonspontaneous.
Practice: Which of the following statements is/are true?
a) The rusting of iron by oxygen is a non-spontaneous reaction.
b) The addition of a catalyst to a reaction increases spontaneity.
c) The movement of heat from a cold object to a hot object is a non-spontaneous reaction.
d) The diffusion of perfume molecules from one side of a room to the other is a non-spontaneous reaction.
e) None of the above.