Ch.12 - SolutionsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solutions are homogeneous mixtures that result from the dissolving of a solute by a solvent.

Solutions and Intermolecular Forces

In the theory of "Likes" dissolving "Likes" the solvent can only completely dissolve the solute if they share similar polarity. 

Molarity & Solutions 

Concept #1: Solutions and Molarity. 

MOLARITY represents the moles of solute dissolved per liters of solution.

Concept #2: The Theory of “Likes” dissolve “Likes”. 

A pure solvent with similar polarity can successfully dissolve a solute to create a solution. 

Example #1: Butane, a nonpolar organic compound, is most likely to dissolve in:

a. HCl

b. C6H5OH

c. C8H18

d. AlCl3

e. What the heck is butane? 

Additional Problems
Both ammonia and phosphine (PH3) are soluble in water. Which is least soluble and why? 1. ammonia; it does not form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. 2. phosphine; the P−H bonds are so strong that they cannot break to enable phosphine to hydrogen-bond with water. 3. ammonia; it is too small to be hydrated by water molecules. 4. ammonia; the N−H bonds are so strong that they cannot break to enable the ammonia to hydrogen-bond with water. 5. phosphine; it does not form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. 
Which one of the following statements is false? 1. Gases are generally more soluble in water under high pressures than under low pressures. 2. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is more miscible with hexane (C6H14) than it is with a polar solvent such as methanol (CH3OH). 3. As temperature increases, the solubilities of some solids in liquids increase and the solubilities of other solids in liquids decrease. 4. Water dissolves many ionic solutes because of its ability to hydrate ions in solution. 5. Gases are generally more soluble in water at high temperature than at low temperatures.
Choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution. A) KI and Hg B) LiCl and C6H14 C) C3H8 and C2H5OH D) F2 and PF3 E) NH3 and CH3OH
Which of the following solvents will dissolve potassium bromide, KBr? a. H2O b. CCl4 c. S8 d. CH3CH3 e. All would dissolve potassium bromide at equal rates.   The predominant intermolecular force in the question above is:  a. London Dispersion b. Hydrogen Bonding c. Ion-Dipole d. Dipole-Dipole e. Dipole-induced Dipole
A solution is prepared by mixing together cyclohexane (C 6H12, MW = 84.16 g/mol) and p-xylene (C6H4(CH3)2), MW = 106.17 g/mol). The mole fraction of p-xylene in the solution is X p = 0.1664. What are the molality and the percent by mass p-xylene in the solution?
Two pure chemical substances are likely to mix and form a solution if:a. The formation of the solution causes an increase in energy.b. One substance is polar and the other is nonpolar.c. The formation of the solution causes an increase in randomness.d. Strong intermolecular attraction between the solute molecules.e. More than one of these.
An aqueous KNO3 solution is made using 87.6 g of KNO3 diluted to a total solution volume of 1.51 L. (Assume a density of 1.05 g/ml for the solution.)Part ACalculate the molarity of the solution.Part BCalculate the molality of the solution.Part CCalculate the mass percent of the solution.
If the mass of sodium chloride, NaCl (MW = 58.5 g/mol), is 40.0 g and the mass of water is 30.0 g, what is the mole fraction of NaCl in the solution?a. 0.291b. 0.60c. 0.40d. 40.0e. 0.240     What is the mass percent of NaCl in the solution in the previous question?a. 0.291b. 0.60c. 0.40d. 40.0e. 0.240
Rank the following molecules in order from most soluble in water to least soluble in water.methane: CH4, hexanol: C6H13OH, table salt: NaCl, propane:C3H8 
What term describes the process when two liquids are completely soluble in each other in all proportions?A) solvationB) miscibleC) unsaturatedD) saturatedE) oversaturated 
What intermolecular attractive force is primarily responsible for the solubility of chlorine, Cl2, in water?a. dipole - dipoleb. hydrogen bondingc. dipole-induced dipoled. ion-dipolee. ion-induced dipole
12.00 grams of acetic acid HC2H3O2 (Molar mass= 60.00 g/mol) are dissolved in 188.0 grams of water. Density of solution is 1.12g/mL. a. What is the wt/wt % concentration of the solution?   b. What is the molarity of this solution?     c. What is the molality of the solution?
Which of the following chemical terms is affected by temperature? MolalityMass percentMolarityMole fraction
The term “like dissolves like” is used to help explain why a solute dissolves in a given solvent. What property of the solvent and solute need to be alike for the solution to form?a) The chemical composition.b) The molecular weights.c) The boiling points.d) The lattice enthalpies.e) The intermolecular bonds.
Choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution.a. C6H14 and C10H20b. LiBr and C5H12c. N2O4 and NH4Cld. C6H14 and H2Oe. None of these pairs will form a homogeneous solution.
Four liquids are ranked in order of decreasing polarity as follows: (most polar) water > methanol > ethyl acetate > hexane (least polar)Which liquid would best dissolve sodium chloride?a. waterb. methanolc. ethyl acetated. hexane
Which liquid would best dissolve parafin?a. waterb. methanolc. ethyl acetated. hexane
If the mass of sodium chloride, NaCl (MW= 58.5 g/mol), is 40.0 g and the mass of water is 30.0 g, what is the mole fraction of NaCl in the solution? a) 0.291 b) 0.60 c) 0.40 d) 40.0 e) 0.240   What is the mass percent of NaCl in the solution in the previous question? a) 0.291 b) 0.60 c) 0.40 d) 40.0 e) 0.240
The maximum concentration set by the US Environmental Protection Agency for lead in drinking water is 15 ppb and for cadmium is 50 ppbHow many liters of water contaminated at this maximum level must you drink to consume 2.9 μg of lead? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.How many liters of water contaminated at this maximum level must you drink to consume 2.9 μg of cadmium? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Calculate the molarity of a solution made by adding 35.2 mL of concentrated nitric acid (70.4 wt %, density 1.42 g/mL) to some water in a volumetric flask, then adding water to the mark to make exactly 2000 mL of solution. (It is important to add concentrated acid or base to water, rather than the other way, to minimize splashing and maximize safety.) 
Five mineral samples of equal mass of calcite, CaCO3 (MM 100.085), had a total mass of 11.6 ± 0.1 g. What is the average mass of calcium in each sample? (Assume that the relative uncertainties in atomic mass are small compared the uncertainty of the total mass.)
This question has multiple parts. Work all the parts to get the most points.Calculate the concentration in %(w/w) of the following solution. Assume water has a density of 1.00 g/mL. a. 29.3 g of a solid is dissolved in 100. mL of water. b. 0.141 mol of solid NaCl is dissolved in 500. mL of water. c. 13.0 mL of ethyl alcohol (density = 0.789 g/mL) is mixed with 34.0 mL of ethylene glycol (density = 1.11 g/mL). 
This question has multiple parts. Work on all the parts to get the most points.Calculate the concentration in %(w/w) of the following solutions: a. 492 g of solute is dissolved in enough water to give 1.00 L of solution. The density of the resulting solution is 1.35 g/mL. b. A 50.0-mL solution sample with a density of 0.884 g/mL leaves 15.4 g of solid residue when evaporated. c. A 27.0-g sample of solution on evaporation leaves a 5.02-g residue of NH 4Cl. 
A 0.3146-g sample of a mixture of NaCI(s) and KBr(s) was dissolved in water. The resulting solution required 46.90 mL of 0.08765 M AgNO3(aq) to precipitate the Cl^-(aq) and Br^-(aq) as AgCI(s) and AgBr(s). Calculate the mass percentage of NaCI(s) in the mixture.
Rank these compounds by their expected solubility in hexane, C6H14. 
For each solute, identify the better solvent: water or carbon tetrachloride.