Ch.12 - SolutionsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solutions, Molarity and Intermolecular Forces

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Solutions are homogeneous mixtures that result from the dissolving of a solute by a solvent.

Solutions and Intermolecular Forces

In the theory of "Likes" dissolving "Likes" the solvent can only completely dissolve the solute if they share similar polarity. 

Molarity & Solutions 

Concept #1: Solutions and Molarity. 

MOLARITY represents the moles of solute dissolved per liters of solution.

Concept #2: The Theory of “Likes” dissolve “Likes”. 

A pure solvent with similar polarity can successfully dissolve a solute to create a solution. 

Example #1: Butane, a nonpolar organic compound, is most likely to dissolve in:

a. HCl

b. C6H5OH

c. C8H18

d. AlCl3

e. What the heck is butane? 

Additional Problems
Which of the following statements is/are correct? a) Benzene (C6H6) is miscible in acetone (CH3COCH3) b) Acetonitrile (CH3CN) is miscible in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) c) Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) is miscible in octane (C8H18)   A. (a) only B. (b) only C. (c) only D. (a) and (c) E. (a) and (b)
In which of the following liquids is iodine (I 2) expected to be most soluble? A) CH2Cl2 B) H2O C) Methanol D) Ethanol E) CCl4
Which of the species would be expected to be the most miscible in benzene (C 6H6)? 1. decane, C10H22  2. hydrogen fluoride, HF 3. silicon dioxide, SiO2 4. methanol, CH3OH 5. sugar, C6H12O6
Both ammonia and phosphine (PH3) are soluble in water. Which is least soluble and why? 1. ammonia; it does not form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. 2. phosphine; the P−H bonds are so strong that they cannot break to enable phosphine to hydrogen-bond with water. 3. ammonia; it is too small to be hydrated by water molecules. 4. ammonia; the N−H bonds are so strong that they cannot break to enable the ammonia to hydrogen-bond with water. 5. phosphine; it does not form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. 
Which of the following will be dissolved in water? NH3, CF4, CO2
Rank the following in terms of decreasing miscibility in C 8H18 (octane): C2H5Cl (chloroethane), H2O (water), C2H5F (fluoroethane), C9H20 (nonane). 1. H2O > C9H20 > C2H5Cl > C2H5F 2. C9H20 > C2H5Cl > C2H5F > H2O 3. C2H5Cl > C2H5F > H2O > C9H20 4. C2H5F > H2O > C9H20 > C2H5Cl
Which of the following compounds should be soluble in CCI 4? A. NaCl B. C8H18 C. H2O D. NH3 E. None of these compounds is soluble in CCI4
Which one of the following statements is false? 1. Gases are generally more soluble in water under high pressures than under low pressures. 2. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is more miscible with hexane (C6H14) than it is with a polar solvent such as methanol (CH3OH). 3. As temperature increases, the solubilities of some solids in liquids increase and the solubilities of other solids in liquids decrease. 4. Water dissolves many ionic solutes because of its ability to hydrate ions in solution. 5. Gases are generally more soluble in water at high temperature than at low temperatures.
Which of the following species would be expected to be the most miscible to benzene (C6H6)? 1. methanol, CH3OH 2. sugar, C6H12O6 3. hydrogen fluoride, HF 4. silicon dioxide, SiO2 5. decane, C10H22
Choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution. A) KI and Hg B) LiCl and C6H14 C) C3H8 and C2H5OH D) F2 and PF3 E) NH3 and CH3OH
Two pure chemical substances are likely to mix and form a solution if: The formation of the solution causes an increase in energy.  One substance is polar and the other is nonpolar. The formation of the solution causes an increase in randomness.  Strong intermolecular attraction between the solute molecules. The more endothermic the reaction. 
Which of the following molecules is a surfactant?
Coca-Cola took a public relations hit a few months ago when it was discovered that their “scientists” stated that obesity was due to insufficient exercise and not sugary soft drinks (New York Times, August 9, 2015). Why is sugar so soluble in water?
In which solvent do you expect hexane (C6H14) to be miscible?  A. CH3CN B. C5H12 C. CH3COOH D. CH3OH E. H2O
Which of the following solvents will dissolve potassium bromide, KBr? a. H2O b. CCl4 c. S8 d. CH3CH3 e. All would dissolve potassium bromide at equal rates.   The predominant intermolecular force in the question above is:  a. London Dispersion b. Hydrogen Bonding c. Ion-Dipole d. Dipole-Dipole e. Dipole-induced Dipole
The following table presents the solubilities of several gases in water at 25 oC under a total pressure of gas and water vapor of 1 atm. Gas Solubility (m M) CH4 (methane) 1.3 C2H6 (ethane) 1.8 C2H4 (ethylene) 4.7 N2 0.6 O2 1.2 NO 1.9 H2S 99 SO2 1476 You may want to reference (Pages 524 - 567) Chapter 13 while completing this problem.Explain why NO is more soluble in water than either N2 or O2.
The anion (v) is called "BARF" by chemists, as its common abbreviation sounds similar to this word. Tetrabutylammonium, (CH3CH2CH2CH2)4N+ is a bulky cation. Which anion, when paired with the tetrabutylammonium cation, would lead to a salt that will be most soluble in nonpolar solvents?
Would you expect stearic acid, CH3 (CH2 )16 COOH, to be more soluble in water or in carbon tetrachloride?
Which would you expect to be more soluble in water, cyclohexane or dioxane?
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each of the following. Common Laboratory Solvents Common Polar Solvents Common Nonpolar Solvents Water (H2O) Hexane (C6H14) Acetone (CH3COCH3) Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3 ) Methanol (CH3OH) Toluene (C7H8) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) *Diethyl ether has a small dipole moment and can be considered intermediate between polar and nonpolar. motor oil (nonpolar)
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each of the following. Common Laboratory Solvents Common Polar Solvents Common Nonpolar Solvents Water (H2O) Hexane (C6H14) Acetone (CH3COCH3) Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3 ) Methanol (CH3OH) Toluene (C7H8) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) *Diethyl ether has a small dipole moment and can be considered intermediate between polar and nonpolar. lard (nonpolar)
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each of the following. Common Laboratory Solvents Common Polar Solvents Common Nonpolar Solvents Water (H2O) Hexane (C6H14) Acetone (CH3COCH3) Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3 ) Methanol (CH3OH) Toluene (C7H8) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) *Diethyl ether has a small dipole moment and can be considered intermediate between polar and nonpolar. potassium chloride (ionic)
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each substance. State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in each case. Common polar solvents Common nonpolar solvents Water (H2O) Hexane (C6H14) Acetone (CH3COCH3) Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3) Methanol (CH3OH) Toluene (C7H8) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) Pick an appropriate solvent to dissolve isopropyl alcohol (polar, contains an OH group) .
The structures of vitamins E and B6 are shown below. Predict which is more water soluble and which is more fat soluble.
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each substance. State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in each case. Common polar solvents Common nonpolar solvents Water (H2O) Hexane (C6H14) Acetone (CH3COCH3) Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3) Methanol (CH3OH) Toluene (C7H8) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) Pick appropriate solvent(s) to dissolve paraffine oil (nonpolar).
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each substance. State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in each case. Common polar solvents Common nonpolar solvents Water (H2O) Hexane (C6H14) Acetone (CH3COCH3) Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3) Methanol (CH3OH) Toluene (C7H8) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) Pick an appropriate solvent to dissolve sodium nitrate (ionic).
Common laboratory solvents include acetone (CH3COCH3), methanol (CH3OH), toluene (C6H5CH3), and water.Which of these is the best solvent for nonpolar solutes?
Some proteins reside in the hydrophobic lipid bilayer of the cell membrane.Would hydrophilic groups of these proteins still be facing the lipid "solvent"?
Explain dynamic equilibrium with respect to solution formation.
Why doesnt NaCl dissolve in nonpolar solvents such as hexane, C6H14?
Explain why 1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) is miscible in both water (H2O) and hexane (C6H6) when hexane and water are barely soluble in each other.
Label the following processes as exothermic or endothermic:breaking solvent-solvent interactions to form separated particles
Label the following processes as exothermic or endothermic:forming solvent-solute interactions from separated particles
When ammonium chloride dissolves in water, the solution becomes colder. You may want to reference (Pages 526 - 530) Section 13.1 while completing this problem.Is the solution process exothermic or endothermic?
When ammonium chloride dissolves in water, the solution becomes colder. You may want to reference (Pages 526 - 530) Section 13.1 while completing this problem.Why does the solution form?
Structure and solubility Suppose the hydrogens on the OH groups in glucose (refer the figure) were replaced with methyl groups, CH3.Would you expect the water solubility of the resulting molecule to be higher than, lower than, or about the same as the solubility of glucose?
Soaps consist of compounds such as sodium stearate, CH3(CH2)16COO–Na+, that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. Consider the hydrocarbon part of sodium stearate to be the "tail" and the charged part to be the "head."Which part of sodium stearate, head or tail, is more likely to be solvated by water?
Soaps consist of compounds such as sodium stearate, CH3(CH2)16COO–Na+, that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. Consider the hydrocarbon part of sodium stearate to be the "tail" and the charged part to be the "head."Grease is a complex mixture of (mostly) hydrophobic compounds. Which part of sodium stearate, head or tail, is most likely to bind to grease?
Soaps consist of compounds such as sodium stearate, CH3(CH2)16COO–Na+, that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. Consider the hydrocarbon part of sodium stearate to be the "tail" and the charged part to be the "head."If you have large deposits of grease that you want to wash away with water, you can see that adding sodium stearate will help you produce an emulsion. What intermolecular interactions are responsible for this?
The following table presents the solubilities of several gases in water at 25 oC under a total pressure of gas and water vapor of 1 atm. Gas Solubility (m M) CH4 (methane) 1.3 C2H6 (ethane) 1.8 C2H4 (ethylene) 4.7 N2 0.6 O2 1.2 NO 1.9 H2S 99 SO2 1476 You may want to reference (Pages 524 - 567) Chapter 13 while completing this problem.H2S is more water-soluble than almost all the other gases in the table. What intermolecular forces is H2S likely to have with water?
The following table presents the solubilities of several gases in water at 25 oC under a total pressure of gas and water vapor of 1 atm. Gas Solubility (m M) CH4 (methane) 1.3 C2H6 (ethane) 1.8 C2H4 (ethylene) 4.7 N2 0.6 O2 1.2 NO 1.9 H2S 99 SO2 1476 You may want to reference (Pages 524 - 567) Chapter 13 while completing this problem.What intermolecular interactions can the hydrocarbons methane, ethane, and ethylene have with water?
The following table presents the solubilities of several gases in water at 25 oC under a total pressure of gas and water vapor of 1 atm. Gas Solubility (m M) CH4 (methane) 1.3 C2H6 (ethane) 1.8 C2H4 (ethylene) 4.7 N2 0.6 O2 1.2 NO 1.9 H2S 99 SO2 1476 You may want to reference (Pages 524 - 567) Chapter 13 while completing this problem.Which of these hydrocarbons possess pi bonds? Based on their solubilities, would you say pi bonds are more or less polarizable than sigma bonds?
The following table presents the solubilities of several gases in water at 25 oC under a total pressure of gas and water vapor of 1 atm. Gas Solubility (m M) CH4 (methane) 1.3 C2H6 (ethane) 1.8 C2H4 (ethylene) 4.7 N2 0.6 O2 1.2 NO 1.9 H2S 99 SO2 1476 You may want to reference (Pages 524 - 567) Chapter 13 while completing this problem.SO2 is by far the most water-soluble gas in the table. What intermolecular forces is SO2 likely to have with water?
If you put a drop of food coloring in water and watch the drop disperse, is entropy increasing or decreasing?
A solution of methanol and water has a mole fraction of water of 0.312 and a total vapor pressure of 211 torr at 39.9oC. The vapor pressures of pure methanol and pure water at this temperature are 256 torr and 55.3 torr, respectively.What can you say about the relative strengths of the solute-solvent interactions compared to the solute-solute and solvent-solvent interactions?
Consider water and glycerol , CH2( OH)CH(OH)CH2OH.Would you expect them to be miscible in all proportions?
Enthalpy changes accompanying the solution process.How does the magnitude of Hmix compare with the magnitude of Hsolvent+Hsolute for exothermic solution processes?
What is the difference between the solute and the solvent?
At 35 oC the vapor pressure of acetone, (CH3 )2 CO, is 361 torr, and that of chloroform, CHCl3, is 301 torr. Acetone and chloroform can form weak hydrogen bonds between one another; the chlorines on the carbon give the carbon a sufficient partial positive charge to enable this behavior: A solution composed of an equal number of moles of acetone and chloroform has a vapor pressure of 250 torr at 35 oC.Based on the behavior of the solution, predict whether the mixing of acetone and chloroform is an exothermic (Hsoln < 0) or endothermic (Hsoln > 0) process.
The figure shows two volumetric flasks containing the same solution at two temperatures.Does the molarity of the solution change with the change in temperature?
The "free-base" form of cocaine (C17H21NO4) and its protonated hydrochloride form (C17H22ClNO4) are shown below; the free-base form can be converted to the hydrochloride form with one equivalent of HCl. For clarity, not all the carbon and hydrogen atoms are shown; each vertex represents a carbon atom with the appropriate number of hydrogen atoms so that each carbon makes four bonds to other atoms. One of these forms of cocaine is relatively water-soluble: which form, the free base or the hydrochloride?
The "free-base" form of cocaine (C17H21NO4) and its protonated hydrochloride form (C17H22ClNO4) are shown below; the free-base form can be converted to the hydrochloride form with one equivalent of HCl. For clarity, not all the carbon and hydrogen atoms are shown; each vertex represents a carbon atom with the appropriate number of hydrogen atoms so that each carbon makes four bonds to other atoms. One of these forms of cocaine is relatively insoluble in water: which form, the free base or the hydrochloride?
The solubility of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in water at 25 oC is 1.2 g/L. The solubility of chloroform (CHCl3) at the same temperature is 10.1 g/L. Why is chloroform almost 10 times more soluble in water than is carbon tetrachloride?
Which of the following pairs of substances would you expect to form homogeneous solutions when combined? (a) CCl4 and H2 O (b) KCl and H2O (c) Br2 and CCl4 (d) CH3 CH2OH and H2O
This figure shows the interaction of a cation with surrounding water molecules.Which atom of water is associated with the cation?
This figure shows the interaction of a cation with surrounding water molecules.Which of the following explanations accounts for the fact that the ion-solvent interaction is greater for Li+ than for K+?
Consider two ionic solids, both composed of singly-charged ions, that have different lattice energies.Will the solids have the same solubility in water?
Consider two ionic solids, both composed of singly-charged ions, that have different lattice energies.Which solid will be more soluble in water, the one with the larger lattice energy or the one with the smaller lattice energy? Assume that solute-solvent interactions are the same for both solids.
An ionic compound has a very negative Hsoln in water. You may want to reference (Pages 526 - 530) Section 13.1 while completing this problem.Would you expect it to be very soluble or nearly insoluble in water?
Pick an appropriate solvent from the table below to dissolve each substance. State the kind of intermolecular forces that would occur between the solute and solvent in each case. Common polar solvents Common nonpolar solvents Water (H2O) Hexane (C6H14) Acetone (CH3COCH3) Diethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH2CH3) Methanol (CH3OH) Toluene (C7H8) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) Pick appropriate solvent(s) to dissolve sodium chloride (ionic).
A solution contains 4.08 g of chloroform (CHCl3 ) and 9.29 g of acetone (CH3 COCH3 ). The vapor pressures at 35 oC of pure chloroform and pure acetone are 295 torr and 332 torr, respectively.What can you say about the relative strength of chloroform-acetone interactions compared to the acetone-acetone and chloroform-chloroform interactions?
How is the miscibility of a liquid with water related to the liquids polarity?
Substance A is a nonpolar liquid and has only dispersion forces among its constituent particles. Substance B is also a nonpolar liquid and has about the same magnitude of dispersion forces among its constituent particles. When substance A and B are combined, they spontaneously mix.Why do the two substances mix?
Consider the following values for enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) of several organic substances. Account for the variations in heats of vaporization for these substances, considering their relative intermolecular forces.
Consider the following values for enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) of several organic substances. Use intermolecular forces, including hydrogen-bonding interactions where applicable, to explain your responses.
Alcohol Solubility in H2O (mol alcohol/100 g H2O) Solubility in Hexane (C6H14) (mol alcohol/100 g C6H14) Methanol (CH3OH) Miscible 0.12 Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Miscible Miscible Propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) Miscible Miscible Butanol (CH3CH2CH2CH2OH) 0.11 Miscible Pentanol (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH) 0.030 Miscible Consider the table listing the solubilities of several alcohols in water and in hexane. Explain the observed trend in terms of intermolecular forces.
Ibuprofen, widely used as a pain reliever, has a limited solubility in water, less than 1 mg/mL. You may want to reference (Pages 532 - 538) Section 13.3 while completing this problem.Which part of the molecules structure (gray, white, red) contributes to its water solubility?
Ibuprofen, widely used as a pain reliever, has a limited solubility in water, less than 1 mg/mL. You may want to reference (Pages 532 - 538) Section 13.3 while completing this problem.Which part of the molecule (gray, white, red) contributes to its water insolubility?
Two nonpolar organic liquids, hexane (C6H14) and heptane (C7H16), are mixed.Do you expect Hsoln to be a large positive number, a large negative number, or close to zero?
Two nonpolar organic liquids, hexane (C6H14) and heptane (C7H16), are mixed.Hexane and heptane are miscible with each other in all proportions. In making a solution of them, is the entropy of the system increased, decreased, or close to zero, compared to the separate pure liquids?
Two nonpolar organic liquids, hexane (C6H14) and heptane (C7H16), are mixed.Explain.
You may want to reference (Pages 532 - 538) Section 13.3 while completing this problem.Oil and water are immiscible. Which is the most likely reason?
Would you expect alanine (an amino acid) to be more soluble in water or in hexane?
What are the solute and solvent?
What does it mean to say that a substance is soluble in another substance?
Why do two ideal gases thoroughly mix when combined? What drives the mixing?
Proteins can be precipitated out of aqueous solution by the addition of an electrolyte; this process is called "salting out" the protein.If a protein has been salted out, are the protein-protein interactions stronger or weaker than they were before the electrolyte was added?
Why is entropy important in discussing the formation of solutions?
What kinds of intermolecular forces are involved in solution formation?
Explain how the relative strengths of solute-solute interactions, solvent-solvent interactions, and solvent-solute interactions affect solution formation.
What does the statement, like dissolves like, mean with respect to solution formation?
The following table presents the solubilities of several gases in water at 25 oC under a total pressure of gas and water vapor of 1 atm. Gas Solubility (m M) CH4 (methane) 1.3 C2H6 (ethane) 1.8 C2H4 (ethylene) 4.7 N2 0.6 O2 1.2 NO 1.9 H2S 99 SO2 1476 You may want to reference (Pages 524 - 567) Chapter 13 while completing this problem.The solubilities (in water) of the hydrocarbons are as follows: methane < ethane < ethylene. Is this because ethylene is the most polar molecule?
Consider the following values for enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) of several organic substances. How would you expect the solubilities of these substances to vary in hexane as solvent?
Consider the following values for enthalpy of vaporization (kJ/mol) of several organic substances. How would you expect the solubilities of these substances to vary in ethanol as solvent?
Rank the following solute‐solvent interactions in order of INCREASING strength of attraction.I. K+ in H2OII. CH3CH2NH2 in H2OIII. CO2 in CCl4 a) I < II < IIIb) III < II < Ic) II < III < Id) I < III < IIe) III < I < II
In which of the following solvents would carbon disulfide, CS 2, be most soluble?a. Water, H2Ob. Chloroform, CHCl3c. ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2d. Hexane, C6H14e. Methanol, CH3OH
Which of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in water? a. CHCl3 b. CCl4 c. CH3CH2OHd. NaFe. CF4
Hint: By 'dissociation' here you can think of this as 'dissolving'.1. strong binding in the solid and weak solvent-solute interaction.2. weak binding of species in the solid and strong interaction between the solvent and solute.3. None of these is correct.4. strong interaction between solvent molecules.
Select the most water-soluble molecule from the following pair of compounds. Explain your choice:Ethanol, CH3CH2OH  and  Octane, CH3(CH2)6CH3
Which of the following accurately lists compounds in order of increasing solubility in water?A) LiCl, Br2, O2, CH3OHB) LiCl, O2, Br2, CH3OHC) CH3OH, Br2, O2, LiClD) O2, Br2, LiCl, CH3OHE) LiCl, CH3OH, Br2, O2 
Which of the following compounds is likely to be more soluble in water?1. C6H13OH2. C4H9OH3. C4H9SH4. C4H10
Select the values associated with the dissolution of lithium chloride that are exothermic. Check all that apply.a. Energy associated with the separation of water moleculesb. Energy associated with the separation of ionsc. Energy associated with the formation of water-ion interactionsd. The enthalpy of solution e. The separation of solute molecules, like the separation of any molecules, requires heat.
Select the alcohol that you would expect to be the best solvent for LiI.A) CH3OHB) CH3CH2OHC) CH3CH2CH2OHD) CH3CH2CH2CH2OHE) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH
Which of the following of each pair is expected to be more soluble in water?CH3OH or CH3Br     SiO2 or H2CO3      C6H12 or C6H12Oa) CH3OH     SiO2       C6H12O6b) CH3OH     H2CO3    C6H12O6c) CH3Br       SiO2       C6H12d) CH3Br       SiO2       C6H12O6e) CH3OH     H2CO3    C6H12
 In which set are the substances arranged in order of decreasing solubility in water?(A) Al(OH)3 > Mg(OH)2 > NaOH(B) BaSO4 > CaSO4 > MgSO4(C) CaCO3 > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3(D) AgCl > AgBr > Agl
Pick an appropriate solvent to dissolve barium nitrate (ionic). Check all that apply.a. Acetone (CH3COCH3)b. Methanol (CH3OH)c. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)d. Hexane (C6H14)e. Toluene (C7H8)f. Water (H2O)
Pick an appropriate solvent to dissolve olive oil (nonpolar). Check all that apply.a. Acetone (CH3COCH3)b. Methanol (CH3OH)c. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)d. Hexane (C6H14)e. Toluene (C7H8)f. Water (H2O)
Pick an appropriate solvent to dissolve Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4).  Check all that apply.a. Acetone (CH3COCH3)b. Methanol (CH3OH)c. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)d. Hexane (C6H14)e. Toluene (C7H8)f. Water (H2O)
Differentiate between what happens when the following are dissolved in water.a. polar solute versus nonpolar solute
Two pure chemical substances are likely to mix and form a solution if:a. The formation of the solution causes an increase in energy.b. One substance is polar and the other is nonpolar.c. The formation of the solution causes an increase in randomness.d. Strong intermolecular attraction between the solute molecules.e. More than one of these.
How is the miscibility of two liquids related to their polarity? Check all that apply.a. Nonpolar liquids are miscible with other nonpolar liquids.b. Polar liquids are not miscible with nonpolar liquids.c. Polar liquids are miscible with other polar liquids.d. Nonpolar liquids are not miscible with other nonpolar liquids.e. Polar liquids are not miscible with other polar liquids.f. Polar liquids are miscible with nonpolar liquids.
For each solute, identify the better solvent: water or carbon tetrachloride. C6H6, I2, Na2S, CH3OH
Which one of the following would be immiscible with water? 
An unknown substance dissolves readily in water but not in benzene (a nonpolar solvent). Molecules of what type are present in the substance?neither polar nor nonpolarnonpolareither polar or nonpolarpolarnot enough information given
Rank the following molecules in order from most soluble in water to least soluble in water.methane: CH4, hexanol: C6H13OH, table salt: NaCl, propane:C3H8 
Which of the following situations is most favorable for solubility?a. strong attraction between solute particlesb. strong attraction between solvent particlesc. strong attraction of solute particles to solvent particles
Which one of the following is most soluble in hexane (C 6H14)?A. CH3OHB. CH3CH2CH2OHC. CH3CH2OHD. CH3CH2CH2CH2OHE. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH
For each solute listed below, identify the better solvent for solution formation: water or carbon tetrachlorideHow many of these solutes will be miscible with water?a. 2b. 3c. 4d. 5e. 6
Which of these gases can be most efficiently collected by the displacement of water?a) ammoniab) carbon dioxidec) oxygend) hydrogen chloride
Which of the following statements is/are correct?i. Heptane (CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3) is soluble in water.ii. Methylene fluoride (CH2F2 is soluble in butane (CH3CH2CH2CH3)iii. Ammonia is soluble in n-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH)A. ii onlyB. iii onlyC. i and iiD) ii and iiiE. i and iii
A solution is formed when the solute uniformly disperses throughout (or dissolves in) the solvent. The process can be described by three steps:1. separation of solvent-solvent particles (AKA expanding the solvent),2.separation of solute-solute particles (AKA expanding the solute), and3. formation of solute-solvent interactions.Classify the steps involved in the formation of a solution as being endothermic or exothermic.a. Step 1 is exothermic, Step 2 is exothermic, Step 3 is endothermicb. Step 1 is endothermic, Step 2 is endothermic, Step 3 is exothermicc. Step 1 is endothermic, Step 2 is exothermic, Step 3 is exothermicd. Step 1 is exothermic, Step 2 is endothermic, Step 3 is exothermic
Predict what will happen when pure dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) as a solute is mixed with pure methylamine (CH3NH2) as a solventi. the solute will dissolve in the solvent and a solution will formii. a solution will not form and two compounds will form separate layers.because of the following reasoning.iii. both solute and solvent only have London dispersion forces so these will be the strongest intermolecular forces in solution.iv. Since both solute and solvent do not form hydrogen bonds, dipole dipole interaction will be the strongest intermolecular forces promoting solution formation.v. both solute and solvent from hydrogen bonds so they will also form hydrogen bonds in solution.vi. Since, only the solvent from hydrogen bonds, there will be no hydrogen bonds formed in solution and dipole dipole interaction will be the strongest intermolecular force promoting solution formation.vii. Even though only the solvent forms hydrogen bonds there will still be hydrogen bonds formed in solution between the solute and the solvent.A. ii and iiiB. i and ivC. i and vD. i and viE. i and vii
Consider the formation of the three solutions shown in the table.Rank the formation of the solutions A, B, and C from the most exothermic to the most endothermic.
Which of the following solutes will most readily dissolve in H 2O? HOCH2CH2CH2OHCH3CH2CH2CH3CH3CH2CH2OHCCl4HOCH2CH2OH 
Pick an appropriate solvent to dissolve barium nitrate (ionic). Check all that apply.a. Methanol (CH3OH)b. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH)c. Toluene (C7H8)d. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)e. Hexane (C6H14)f. Water (H2O)
The term “like dissolves like” is used to help explain why a solute dissolves in a given solvent. What property of the solvent and solute need to be alike for the solution to form?a) The chemical composition.b) The molecular weights.c) The boiling points.d) The lattice enthalpies.e) The intermolecular bonds.
Which of the following does not affect the solubility of a solute in a given solvent?      A) polarity of the solvent      B) polarity of the soluteC) rate of stirring      D) temperature of the solvent and solute 
Rank the following liquids from most soluble to least soluble in hexane (C 6H14)? Pentane (C5H12), Ammonia (NH3), Chloroform (CHCl3) A. pentane, pentane, ammoniaB. chloroform, pentane, ammoniaC. pentane, ammonia, chloroformD. chloroform, ammonia, pentane
Choose the pair of substances that are most likely to form a homogeneous solution.a. C6H14 and C10H20b. LiBr and C5H12c. N2O4 and NH4Cld. C6H14 and H2Oe. None of these pairs will form a homogeneous solution.
Which interactions are stronger in a dilute aqueous NaCl solution?A. Solute-soluteB. Solvent-solute
Four liquids are ranked in order of decreasing polarity as follows: (most polar) water > methanol > ethyl acetate > hexane (least polar)Which liquid would best dissolve sodium chloride?a. waterb. methanolc. ethyl acetated. hexane
Which liquid would best dissolve parafin?a. waterb. methanolc. ethyl acetated. hexane
Which compound below is likely the most soluble in water?A. CH3CH2CH2CH2OHB. CH3CH2CH2CH2FC. CH3CH2CH2CH2ClD. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
Which of the following statements is/are true? a. Ethane (C2H6) will dissolve completely in acetone, CH 3COCH3. b. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) will form a heterogeneous mixture with carbon tetrachloride, CCl 4. c. Hexanol will form a homogeneous mixture with CBr 4. d. Methanethiol (CH3SH) is miscible in fluoromethane (CH3F). 
For each solute, identify the better solvent: water or carbon tetrachloride.C6H6, I2, Na2S, CH3OH
Which of the following compounds is most soluble in water?a. 3-pentanoneb. octanec. 1 butanold. methyl propyl ethere. propane
Rank the liquids NH3, CH3OH, CH3CH2F, CCl4 by their miscibility in heptane (C7H16), from most miscible to least. 1. CH3CH2F > CCl4 > CH3OH > NH3 2. CCl4 > CH3CH2F > CH3OH > NH3 3. CH3CH2F > CH3OH > CCl4 > NH3 4. NH3 > CH3OH > CH3CH2F > CCl4 5. CCl4 > CH3CH2F > NH3 > CH3OH
For each solute, identify the better solvent: water or carbon tetrachloride. KF, NH3, C6H14, I2
Which gas is  least soluble in water?a) H2b) CO2c) NH3d) SO2
Below is a tetrahedral molecule with one atom missing (the box). What atom would you add to make an uncharged molecule that is:a. Soluble in water  _________________________b. Soluble in CH4    _________________________
Which solvent, water or carbon tetrachloride, would you choose to dissolve each of the following?a. KrF2
Which solvent, water or carbon tetrachloride, would you choose to dissolve each of the following?b. SF2
Which solvent, water or carbon tetrachloride, would you choose to dissolve each of the following?c. SO2
Which solvent, water or carbon tetrachloride, would you choose to dissolve each of the following?d. CO2
Which solvent, water or carbon tetrachloride, would you choose to dissolve each of the following?e. MgF2
Which solvent, water or carbon tetrachloride, would you choose to dissolve each of the following?f. CH2O
Which solvent, water or carbon tetrachloride, would you choose to dissolve each of the following?g. CH2PCH2
Which solvent, water or hexane (C6H14), would you choose to dissolve each of the following?a. Cu(NO3)2 
Which solvent, water or hexane (C6H14), would you choose to dissolve each of the following?b. CS2
Which solvent, water or hexane (C6H14), would you choose to dissolve each of the following?c. CH3OH
Which solvent, water or hexane (C6H14), would you choose to dissolve each of the following?d. CH3(CH2)16CH2OH
Which solvent, water or hexane (C6H14), would you choose to dissolve each of the following?e. HCl
Which solvent, water or hexane (C6H14), would you choose to dissolve each of the following? f. C6H6
For each of the following pairs, predict which substance would be more soluble in water.a. 
For each of the following pairs, predict which substance would be more soluble in water.b. 
For each of the following pairs, predict which substance would be more soluble in water.c. 
Predict whether each of the following substances would be more soluble in water (polar solvent) or in a hydrocarbon such as heptane (C7H16, nonpolar solvent):(a) vegetable oil (nonpolar)
Predict whether each of the following substances would be more soluble in water (polar solvent) or in a hydrocarbon such as heptane (C7H16, nonpolar solvent):(b) isopropyl alcohol (polar)
Predict whether each of the following substances would be more soluble in water (polar solvent) or in a hydrocarbon such as heptane (C7H16, nonpolar solvent):(c) potassium bromide (ionic)
Which gives the more concentrated solution,  (a) KNO3 in H2O or (b) KNO3 in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)? Explain.
For each of the following pairs, predict which substance is more soluble in water: CH3NH2 or NH 3.
For each of the following pairs, predict which substance is more soluble in water: CH3CN or CH 3OCH3.
Which gives the more concentrated solution, stearic acid [CH3(CH2)16COOH] in (a) H2O or (b) CCl4? Explain.
For each of the following pairs, predict which substance is more soluble in water: CH3CH2OH or CH3CH2CH3.
For each of the following pairs, predict which substance is more soluble in water: CH3OH or CH 3CH2OH.
For each of the following pairs, predict which substance is more soluble in water: (CH3)3CCH2OH or CH 3(CH2)6OH.
For each of the following pairs, predict which substance is more soluble in water: CH3OCH3 or CH3CO2H.
Which member of each pair is more soluble in diethyl ether? Why?(a) NaCl(s) or HCl(g)
Which member of each pair is more soluble in diethyl ether? Why?(b) H2O(l) or
Which member of each pair is more soluble in diethyl ether? Why?(c) MgBr2(s) or CH3CH2MgBr(s)
Which member of each pair is more soluble in water? Why?
Two beakers are placed in a closed container (left). One beaker contains water, the other a concentrated aqueous sugar solution. With time, the solution volume increases and the water volume decreases (right). Explain on the molecular level.
The solubility of benzoic acid (HC 7H5O2),is 0.34 g/100 mL in water at 25˚C and is 10.0 g/100 mL in benzene (C  6H6) at 25˚C. Rationalize this solubility behavior. (Hint: Benzoic acid forms a dimer in benzene.) Would benzoic acid be more or less soluble in a 0.1-M NaOH solution than it is in water? Explain.
Given the following electrostatic potential diagrams, comment on the expected solubility of CH4 in water and NH3 in water.
Suggest an explanation for the observations that ethanol, C2H5OH, is completely miscible with water and that ethanethiol, C2H5SH, is soluble only to the extent of 1.5 g per 100 mL of water.
The high melting points of ionic solids indicate that a lot of energy must be supplied to separate the ions from one another. How is it possible that the ions can separate from one another when soluble ionic compounds are dissolved in water, often with essentially no temperature change?
How do solutions differ from compounds? From other mixtures?
Water is a good solvent for many substances. What is the molecular basis for this property and why is it significant?
When KNO3 is dissolved in water, the resulting solution is significantly colder than the water was originally.(a) Is the dissolution of KNO3 an endothermic or an exothermic process?
When KNO3 is dissolved in water, the resulting solution is significantly colder than the water was originally.(c) Is the resulting solution an ideal solution?
When KNO3 is dissolved in water, the resulting solution is significantly colder than the water was originally.(b) What conclusions can you draw about the intermolecular attractions involved in the process?
State whether the entropy of the system increases or decreases in each of the following processes: (a) Gasoline burns in a car engine.
State whether the entropy of the system increases or decreases in each of the following processes:(b) Gold is extracted and purified from its ore.
State whether the entropy of the system increases or decreases in each of the following processes:(c) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) dissolves in 1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH).
State whether the entropy of the system increases or decreases in each of the following processes: (a) Pure gases are mixed to prepare an anesthetic.
State whether the entropy of the system increases or decreases in each of the following processes:(b) Electronic-grade silicon is prepared from sand.
State whether the entropy of the system increases or decreases in each of the following processes:(c) Dry ice (solid CO2) sublimes.
Indicate the most important types of intermolecular attractions in each of the following solutions:(b) NO(l) in CO(l)
Indicate the most important types of intermolecular attractions in each of the following solutions: (c) Cl2(g) in Br2(l)
Which ion in each of the following pairs would you expect to be more strongly hydrated? Why?a. Na+ or Mg2+
Indicate the most important types of intermolecular attractions in each of the following solutions:(d) HCl(g) in benzene C6H6(l)
Indicate the most important types of intermolecular attractions in each of the following solutions:(e) Methanol CH3OH(l) in H2O(l)
Which ion in each of the following pairs would you expect to be more strongly hydrated? Why?b. Mg2+ or Be2+
Which ion in each of the following pairs would you expect to be more strongly hydrated? Why?c. Fe2+ or Fe3+
Which ion in each of the following pairs would you expect to be more strongly hydrated? Why?d. F- or Br-
Which ion in each of the following pairs would you expect to be more strongly hydrated? Why?e. Cl- or ClO4-
In flushing and cleaning columns used in liquid chromatography to remove adsorbed contaminants, a series of solvents is used. Hexane (C6H14), chloroform (CHCl3), methanol (CH3OH), and water are passed through the column in that order. Rationalize the order in terms of intermolecular forces and the mutual solubility (miscibility) of the solvents.
Heat is released when some solutions form; heat is absorbed when other solutions form. Provide a molecular explanation for the difference between these two types of spontaneous processes.
Explain why the ions Na+ and Cl− are strongly solvated in water but not in hexane, a solvent composed of nonpolar molecules.
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(a) CsCl(s) in H2O(l)
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(b) in H2O(l)
Which of the following best represents a molecular-scale view of an ionic compound in aqueous solution? Explain.
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(c) CH3OH(l) in CCl4(l)
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution? (a) Cu(s) in Ag(s) 
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(b) CH3Cl(g) in CH3OCH3(g) 
Pyridine (right) is an essential portion of many biologically active compounds, such as nicotine and vitamin B6. Like ammonia, it has a nitrogen with a lone pair, which makes it act as a weak base. Because it is miscible in a wide range of solvents, from water to benzene, pyridine is one of the most important bases and solvents in organic syntheses. Account for its solubility behavior in terms of intermolecular forces.
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(c) CH3CH3(g) in CH3CH2CH2NH2(l)
You may want to reference (Page 597) Section 13.6 while completing this problem.A solution is an equimolar mixture of two volatile components A and B. Pure A has a vapor pressure of 50 torr and pure B has a vapor pressure of 100 torr. The vapor pressure of the mixture is 85 torr.What can you conclude about the relative strengths of the intermolecular forces between particles of A and B (relative to those between particles of A and those between particles of B)?
Consider the solutions presented:(a) Which of the following sketches best represents the ions in a solution of Fe(NO3)3(aq)?
Consider the solutions presented:(a) Which of the following sketches best represents the ions in a solution of Fe(NO3)3(aq)?(b) Write a balanced chemical equation showing the products of the dissolution of Fe(NO3)3.
Compare the processes that occur when methanol (CH3OH), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissolve in water. Write equations and prepare sketches showing the form in which each of these compounds is present in its respective solution.
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(a) CH3OCH3(g) in H2O(l)
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(c) N2(g) in C4H10(g)
When ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is dissolved in water, the solution becomes colder. Is the dissolution of ammonium chloride endothermic or exothermic?
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(a) C6H14(l) in C8H18(l) 
When ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is dissolved in water, the solution becomes colder. Why does the solution form? What drives the process?
When lithium iodide (LiI) is dissolved in water, the solution becomes hotter. Is the dissolution of lithium iodide endothermic or exothermic?
When lithium iodide (LiI) is dissolved in water, the solution becomes hotter. Why does the solution form? What drives the process?
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(b) H2C=O(g) in CH3OH(l) 
What is the strongest type of intermolecular force between solute and solvent in each solution?(c) Br2(l) in CCl4(l)
Indicate the most important type of intermolecular attraction responsible for solvation in each of the following solutions:(b) methanol, CH3OH, dissolved in ethanol, C2H5OH
Indicate the most important type of intermolecular attraction responsible for solvation in each of the following solutions:(c) methane, CH4, dissolved in benzene, C6H6
Gluconic acid is a derivative of glucose used in cleaners and in the dairy and brewing industries. Caproic acid is a carboxylic acid used in the flavoring industry. Although both are sixcarbon acids (see structures below), gluconic acid is soluble in water and nearly insoluble in hexane, whereas caproic acid has the opposite solubility behavior. Explain.
Indicate the most important type of intermolecular attraction responsible for solvation in each of the following solutions:(d) the polar halocarbon CF2Cl2 dissolved in the polar halocarbon CF2ClCFCl2
Indicate the most important type of intermolecular attraction responsible for solvation in each of the following solutions:(e) O2(l) in N2(l)
Rationalize the trend in water solubility for the following simple alcohols:
The maximum concentration set by the US Environmental Protection Agency for lead in drinking water is 15 ppb and for cadmium is 50 ppbHow many liters of water contaminated at this maximum level must you drink to consume 2.9 μg of lead? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.How many liters of water contaminated at this maximum level must you drink to consume 2.9 μg of cadmium? Express your answer to two significant figures and include the appropriate units.
Calculate the molarity of a solution made by adding 35.2 mL of concentrated nitric acid (70.4 wt %, density 1.42 g/mL) to some water in a volumetric flask, then adding water to the mark to make exactly 2000 mL of solution. (It is important to add concentrated acid or base to water, rather than the other way, to minimize splashing and maximize safety.) 
Five mineral samples of equal mass of calcite, CaCO3 (MM 100.085), had a total mass of 11.6 ± 0.1 g. What is the average mass of calcium in each sample? (Assume that the relative uncertainties in atomic mass are small compared the uncertainty of the total mass.)
This question has multiple parts. Work all the parts to get the most points.Calculate the concentration in %(w/w) of the following solution. Assume water has a density of 1.00 g/mL. a. 29.3 g of a solid is dissolved in 100. mL of water. b. 0.141 mol of solid NaCl is dissolved in 500. mL of water. c. 13.0 mL of ethyl alcohol (density = 0.789 g/mL) is mixed with 34.0 mL of ethylene glycol (density = 1.11 g/mL). 
This question has multiple parts. Work on all the parts to get the most points.Calculate the concentration in %(w/w) of the following solutions: a. 492 g of solute is dissolved in enough water to give 1.00 L of solution. The density of the resulting solution is 1.35 g/mL. b. A 50.0-mL solution sample with a density of 0.884 g/mL leaves 15.4 g of solid residue when evaporated. c. A 27.0-g sample of solution on evaporation leaves a 5.02-g residue of NH 4Cl. 
A 0.3146-g sample of a mixture of NaCI(s) and KBr(s) was dissolved in water. The resulting solution required 46.90 mL of 0.08765 M AgNO3(aq) to precipitate the Cl^-(aq) and Br^-(aq) as AgCI(s) and AgBr(s). Calculate the mass percentage of NaCI(s) in the mixture.
Rank these compounds by their expected solubility in hexane, C6H14. 
For each solute, identify the better solvent: water or carbon tetrachloride.