Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond TheorySee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Whenever we draw a molecule we must take into account two different systems of geometrical shape. 

Electronic Geometry

Concept #1: Understanding Electronic Geometry 

The electronic geometry of a compound treats surrounding elements and lone pairs on the central element as the same.

Example #1: Draw each of the following compounds and determine their electronic geometries.

PH3

Example #2: Draw each of the following compounds and determine their electronic geometries.

BeCl2

Practice: Draw the following compound and determine its electronic geometry. SBr4

Practice: Draw the following compound and determine its electronic geometry. IF3

Practice: Draw the following compound and determine its electronic geometry. H2S

Practice: Draw the following compound and determine its electronic geometry. PO3 -

Molecular Geometry

Concept #2: Understanding Molecular Geometry 

The molecular geometry of a compound treats surrounding elements and lone pairs on the central as different. 

Example #3: Draw each of the following compounds and determine their molecular geometries. 

PH2   

Example #4: Draw each of the following compounds and determine their   molecular geometries. 

XeCl2

Practice: Draw the following compound and determine its molecular geometry. OBr2

Practice: Draw the following compound and determine its molecular geometry. SO 2 -

Additional Problems
Which of the following is best described as T-shaped? a) NH3 b) BCl3 c) XeF3+ d) NO3− e) SO32−
Choose the best Lewis structure for ICl5 .
Please read each question carefully.
Classify these structures according to their valence shell electron pair repulsion geometry. You can use the answers more than once. ____ XY2                           A. octahedral ____ XY2Z                         B. trigonal bipyramidal ____ XY3Z2                       C. tetrahedal ____ XY2Z2                       D. linear                                          E. trigonal planar
If one atom is replaced with a lone pair of electrons from which of the fundamental basic geometries below could you create a molecule having a triangular pyramidal shape? a. linear b. trigonal planar c. octahedral d. tetrahedral e. trigonal bipyramidal
Classify these structures according to their molecular geometry = shape. You can use the answers more than once. ___ XY5            A. octahedral ___ XY3Z2        B. bent (~120°)  ___ XY2Z3        C. trigonal bipyramidal ___ XY2Z2        D. square pyramidal ___ XY4Z2        E. trigonal pyramidal                         F. square planar                         G. linear                         H. bent (~109.5°)                          I. T-shaped                         J. trigonal planar                         K. tetrahedral
What is the electron geometry and molecular geometry if a central atom has four total electron groups with two being bond pairs and two being lone pairs? a. trigonal pyramidal , seesaw b. tetrahedral , trigonal planar c. tetrahedral , bent d. trigonal planar, trigonal planar e. trigonal pyramidal , linear 
What is the expected molecular geometry of IBr 4 +? a. see saw b. trigonal planar c. octahedral d. tetrahedral e. trigonal bipyramidal 
Which is not a possible shape for molecules with trigonal bipyramidal electron group arrangements? (a) Trigonal planar (b) Linear (c) See-saw (d) T-shaped (e) All the above shapes are possible.
White phosphorous is composed of molecules of P4 in which each P atom is connected to three other P atoms in the shape of a tetrahedron. Does it obey the octet rule? 1. No 2. Yes 3. Unable to determine
What is the electronic geometry around nitrogen in the molecule CH 3CH2NH2? 1. square planar 2. trigonal planar 3. tetrahedral 4. bent 5. linear 6. trigonal pyramidal
What is the molecular geometry of SbCl 52- ? Antimony (Sb) can be an exception to the octet rule, accepting up to twelve electrons. 1. trigonal bipyramidal 2. square planar 3. square pyramidal 4. octahedral 5. seesaw
Give the number of lone pairs around the central atom and the geometry of the ion SeO42–.             A)      0 lone pairs, square planar             B)      1 lone pair, square pyramidal             C)      1 lone pair, distorted tetrahedron (seesaw)             D)      0 lone pairs, tetrahedral             E)      2 lone pairs, square planar
Which one of the following molecules has tetrahedral geometry?  A)  XeF4         B)  BF 3         C)  AsF 5         D) NH 3          E)  CF 4
What type of molecular structure does the XeOF 2 molecule have? (Xe is the central atom) a) trigonal pyramidal b) tetrahedral c) T-shaped d) trigonal planar e) octahedral
Predict the molecular geometry and polarity of the SO 2 molecule.             A)      linear, polar                                           D)      bent, nonpolar             B)      bent, polar                                             E)      None of the above.             C)      linear, nonpolar           
Select the correct molecular structure for SO 3 from the choices below: a) T-shaped b) trigonal planar c) tetrahedral d) octahedral e) trigonal bipyramid
The predicted geometry of ICl3 would be 1. trigonal pyramidal. 2. linear. 3. trigonal bipyramidal. 4. T-shaped. 5. trigonal planar.
Which of the following is best described as T - shaped? a) NH3 b) BCl3 c) XeF3 +  d) NO3 −  e) SO3 2−
What is the molecular geometry of ICl 4-? T-shaped Trigonal bipyramidal Seesaw Tetrahedral Square planar
What are the electron group geometries of the labeled carbon and oxygen atoms in aspartic acid? a) trigonal pyramidal and bent b) trigonal pyramidal and tetrahedral c) trigonal planar and tetrahedral d) tetrahedral and bent e) trigonal planar and bent
Use VSEPR theory to predict the electron domain geometry of CS 2. a) bent b) linear c) trigonal planar d) tetrahedral e) octahedral
What are the molecular geometries of the labeled carbon and nitrogen atoms in caffeine? a) trigonal pyramidal and tetrahedral b) trigonal pyramidal and trigonal planar c) trigonal planar and tetrahedral d) trigonal planar and trigonal pyramidal e) Tetrahedral and tetrahedral
What is the molecular geometry around a central atom that has three bonding pairs and one lone electron-pair? a) bent b) linear c) trigonal-planar d) trigonal-pyramidal e) trigonal-bipyramidal
Determine the electron geometry (eg) and molecular geometry (mg) of BrF 3. a) eg=trigonal planar, mg=trigonal planar b) eg=trigonal bipyramidal, mg=T-shape c) eg=trigonal planar, mg=bent d) eg=trigonal bipyramidal. mg=see-saw e) eg=tetrahedral, mg=trigonal pyramidal
The molecule of the type ML4 consists of four single bonds and no lone pairs. What structure is it expected to assume? A) square planar B) trigonal planar C) trigonal pyramidal D) tetrahedral
The shape that most closely describes the NF3, molecule is a) octahedral. b) trigonal planar. c) trigonal pyramidal. d) tetrahedral.
When drawing a compound you have to take into account two different systems of geometrical shape. With the MOLECULAR geometry you treat lone pairs (nonbonding electrons) and surrounding elements as different.   With the ELECTRONIC geometry you treat lone pairs (nonbonding electrons) and surrounding elements as the same. They are both treated as X.  
In which pair are the molecules geometricaly similar? a) SO2 and CO2 b) PH3 and BF3 c) CO2 and OF2 d) SO2 and O3
Which is planar? a) NH3 b) SO32- c) CO32- d) CCl4
Which is linear? a) H2S b) NH3 c) NO2 d) CO2
Consider the given Lewis structure for BrF5. What is the predicted shape for the molecule as a whole? a) square pyramidal b) trigonal bipyramidal c) trigonal pyramidal  d) octahedral
What is the shape of the XeF4, molecule? a) square planar b) trigonal bipyramidal c) tetrahedral d) trigonal pyramidal
Use VSEPR theory to predict the geometry of the PCl 3 molecule.
NH3 (pyramidal geometry) reacts with BF3 (planar geometry) to form the addition compound, H3NBF3. What is the geometry around the nitrogen and boron centers in the addition compound? a) Both centers are tetrahedral. b) Nitrogen is tetrahedral; boron is linear.  c) Nitrogen is pyramidal; boron is planar. d) Nitrogen is planar; boron is pyramidal. 
Identify the number of electron groups in XeF2 a.  2             b.  3                 c.  4                 d.  5                 e.  6
Which compound would be expected to have the largest dipole moment? a) CO2 (linear) b) SO2 (bent) c) BF3 (trigonal planar) d) CF4 (tetrahedral)
Knowing that F is more electronegative than either B or P, what conclusion can be drawn from the fact that BF3 has no dipole moment, but PF3 does? a) BF3 is not spherically symmetrical, but PF3 is. b) The BF3 molecule must be trigonal planar. c) The BF3 molecule must be linear.  d) The atomic radius of P is larger than the atomic radius of B.
What is the molecular shape of the XeF 5+ ion? 1. tetrahedral 2. square pyramidal 3. trigonal bipyramidal 4. trigonal pyramidal 5. octahedral
Dot structures are given below for several compounds containing iodine (lone pairs are shown only for the central atom). Draw the structure and name the molecular geometry from the following list: linear, bent, T-shaped, see-saw, trigonal pyramidal, trigonal planar, trigonal bipyramidal, square planar, square pyramidal, tetrahedral, octahedral. 
Dot structures are given below for several compounds containing iodine (lone pairs are shown only for the central atom). Draw the structure and name the molecular geometry from the following list: linear, bent, T-shaped, see-saw, trigonal pyramidal, trigonal planar, trigonal bipyramidal, square planar, square pyramidal, tetrahedral, octahedral. 
Choose the correct description for SiOH 2. NOTE: Si is the CENTRAL atom and all the other atoms are attached to Si.  1. polar, pyramidal 2. polar, trigonal planar 3. non-polar, T-shaped 4. polar, T-shaped 5. polar, tetrahedral 6. non-polar, pyramidal 7. non-polar, tetrahedral 8. non-polar, trigonal planar
The molecular geometry of ICl2− is 1. trigonal planar. 2. octahedral. 3. trigonal bipyramidal. 4. tetrahedral. 5. linear.
Which of the following has a trigonal planar geometry? 1. FNO2 (N is central) 2. SO3 2– 3. BrO3 –  4. CH3 –
Which of the following molecules has a nonlinear structure? a) XeF2 b) BeCl2 c) SeO2 d) CO2 e) N2O (central atom is N)
What is the molecular geometry of SeF5 - ? 1. see-saw 2. square pyramidal 3. octahedral 4. trigonal bipyramidal
What type of molecular structure does the XeOF 2 molecule have? (Xe is the central atom) a). trigonal pyramidal b) tetrahedral c) T-shaped d) trigonal planar e) octahedral
Consider the polyatomic ion PCl 4- and its three dimensional structure. What is the electronic geometry and the molecular geometry for this ion? 1. tetrahedral; tetrahedral 2. trigonal bypyramidal; tetrahedral 3. octahedral; square planar 4. octahedral; square pyramidal 5. trigonal bipyramidal; T-shaped 6. trigonal bipyramidal; seesaw
What are the electronic and molecular geometries of the molecule BrF 5? 1. octahedral, trigonal bipyramidal 2. trigonal bipyramidal, square pyramidal 3. ocahedral, square pyramidal 4. trigonal bipyramidal, trigonal bipyramdal 5. octahedral, octahedral
Which of the following has a trigonal bipyramidal structure? a) PCl5 b) IF5 c) NH3 d) I3− e) Two of these four molecules
Which of these molecules are linear? Check all that apply.a. SF2b. XeF2c. BeCl2d. NO2-
What is the molecular shape of sulfur dioxide, SO 2, (i.e., what is the atom geometry around the central atom)? A) linear B) trigonal planar C) bent D) trigonal pyramidal
What is the molecular Geometry of NO 2?
Why does NO3- have a molecular geometry shape of trigonal planar?? Isn't it true that in order to be  trigonal planar there should be 4 bonded pairs and 0 lone pairs?
a) Select all of the equatorial atoms on the structure below.  b) What is the shape of this molecule?
a) Select all of the equatorial atoms on the structure below. You may need to rotate the molecule to see all the atoms. b) What is the shape of this molecule?
White phosphorous is composed of molecules of P4 in which each P atom is connected to three other P atoms in the shape of a tetrahedron. Does it obey the octet rule?1. No2. Yes3. Unable to determine
What is the molecular geometry of NH 3? a. Trigonal planar b. Tetrahedral c. Triangular pyramid d. Bent
The molecular geometry of PF3 is best described as A) trigonal planar B) trigonal pyramidal C) T-shapted D) tetrahedral E) the correct geometry is not listed
What is the molecular geometry of SF2? a. Upside down b. Bent c. Tetrahedral d. Linear
What is the electronic geometry of H 2O?
What is the molecular geometry of PCl 3?
What shape would you expect for XeF4?
Draw the Lewis electron-dot structures for the 3 isomers of C 2H2Cl2. Use models to deduce the shape and polarity of each isomer.
According to VSEPR theory, the geometry of the PH 3 molecule is best described as: linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, bent, or trigonal pyramidal.
What is the electronic geometry of  BI3?
Match each two-dimensional structure to its correct three-dimensional description. Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.
Predict the shape of:a. SF5+b. NO3-c. SO42-d. O3e. N2O
The molecular geometry of the SF2 molecule is a) linear. b) bent. c) trigonal planar. d) tetrahedral. e) octahedral.
Molecular geometry of IF2-1 and lewis structure?
Determine the molecular geometry, or shape, of ClO 2 A) octahedral B) tetrahedral C) trigonal bipyramidal D) trigonal planar E) t-shaped F) bent
The molecular geometry of the CH 3+ ion is best described as _______________ .
What is the electron geometry of NF 3?  
Consider the following moleculesi) BrF3, ii) SO42-, iii) ClO2, and iv) SO2,A) Draw ONE appropriate Lewis structure for each of the four chemical species listed above.B) What are the electron domain geometries surrounding the central atoms?
Which of the following statements is  incorrect?Ionic bonding results from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.Dipole moments result from the unequal distribution of electron in a molecule.The electrons in a polar bond are found nearer to the more electronegative element.A molecule with very polar bonds can be nonpolarLinear molecules cannot have a net dipole moment 
Determine the molecular geometry of ClF4-.
Draw the Lewis structure for CCl 4. What is the molecular geometry of this compound? Is the molecule polar or nonpolar?
What is the molecular shape of the XeF5+ ion? 1. tetrahedral 2. square pyramidal  3. trigonal bipyramidal 4. trigonal pyramidal 5. octahedral
Determine the molecular geometry of SCl 6.
Predict the molecular shape of methane, the carbonate ion, carbon dioxide, and the sulfite ion.
After drawing the Lewis structure determine what the molecular geometry of PCl 3 is  a) trigonal bipyramidal b) square planar c) trigonal planar d) V-shaped e) trigonal pyramidal
How many outer atoms and lone pairs are present in a molecule with a square pyramidal shape?
What is the electron-domain (charge-cloud) geometry of BrF5?
What is the electron pair geometry and Molecular geometry of SCl 2?  
What is the molecular geometry of a molecule with: i) 4 outer atoms and 1 lone pair on the central atom? ii) 2 outer atoms and 2 lone pairs on the central atom? iii) 4 outer atoms and 2 lone pairs on the central atom?
Draw the lewis structure of Cl2O2 based on this structure Cl-Cl with the 2 Oxygen's branching off of the Chlorine. Do not add formal charges. Then, what is the geometry about the central chlorine atom?
What is the electron-domain (charge-cloud) geometry of BrI 5?
What is the molecular geometry of H3O+, hydronium ion?
Draw the Lewis structure of chlorous acid (HClO 2).The result is that around Cl there are ___ (a number) bonding groups and ___ lone pair(s) of electrons. The number and types of structural groups aroud Cl corresponds to the shape called _____ (one 4-letter word). The number and types of structural groups aroud Cl leads to the conclusion that the bonding groups are arranged around Cl in a(n) _____ (a 10 letter word) arrangement. 
The central atom of a molecule has three lone pairs and is bonded to each of two other atoms with a single bond. What is the molecular geometry (shape) of the molecule? a) Linear b) Trigonal planar c) Trigonal bipyramidal d) Octahedral e) Square Planar
For the molecule CO2a) Draw the Lewis structure.b) Determine the geometry.c) Determine whether the compound is polar or non-polar.
1) Draw the lewis Dot Structures for CS 2 and SCl4         2) Using VSEPR rules, predict the geometry of the two molecules in question 1
According to the VSEPR theory, the shape of the SO 3 molecule is a. trigonal planar b. pyramidal c. square planar d. tetrahedral e. distorted tetrahedron (seesaw)
a. Predict the molecular geometry of ClNO.b. Enter the molecular geometry of ClNO.
a) Select all of the equatorial atoms on the structure below. b) What is the shape of this molecule?
What is the correct  electron geometry of SeF4? a. tetrahedral b. square pyramid c. triangular bipyramid d. see saw e. t-shaped
Consider the polar chemical species XeO2Cl22- . A) Draw the Lewis electron dot diagram. B) Draw a diagram, show and state the geometry around the central atom.
Which of these molecules are linear? Check all that apply. a) NO2- b) XeF2 c) BeCl2 d) SF2
What is the molecular shape of C2H2? What is the geometry of electron pairs around its central atom?
Draw the Lewis structure of H2O. Include any nonbonding electron pairs. Include all lone pairs of electrons.What is the electronic geometry of H2O?What is the electronic geometry of ClF3?What is the electronic geometry of BBr3?
For which of the following compounds is the molecular geometry and electron geometry the same? A. NBr3 B. ICI5 C. NH4+ D. BrF2- E. XeF2
For the following molecules or ions, draw a VSEPR picture showing the approximate geometry and the positions of all bonded pairs and lone pairs. Also name the shape of the structure (considering only the position of the nuclei and not the lone pairs) and the hybridization scheme used by the central atom in its bonding.
Dot structures are given below for several compounds containing iodine (lone pairs are shown only for the central atom). Draw the structure and name the molecular geometry from the following list: linear, bent, T-shaped, see-saw, trigonal pyramidal, trigonal planar, trigonal bipyramidal, square planar, square pyramidal, tetrahedral, octahedral. 
The electronic arrangement is the same as the molecular shape when A. the molecule is not polar. B. the number of bonding orbitals equals the number of anti-bonding orbitals. C. there are no lone pairs of electrons on the central atom. D. the atoms are joined by sigma bonds. E. there are more shared electrons than non-shared electrons.
What is the molecular geometry of the bromate ion, BrO3–?a. square planarb. trigonal planarc. square pyramidald. tetrahedrale. trigonal pyramidal
What is the electron-domain (charge-cloud) geometry of ICl 5? Enter the electron-domain geometry of the molecule.
What is the molecular shape of BrF 3 as predicted by the VSEPR theory? A) Trigonal planar B) Tetrahedral C) Trigonal bipyramidal D) T-shaped
Draw the Lewis Structure for KrF2. The central atom has _____ lone pairs. It's geometry is ______.
Determine the molecular geometry of BrF2-. 
Determine molecular geometry of BrF5.
a. What is the electron-domain (charge-cloud) geometry of IF5? Enter the electron-domain geometry of the molecule.b. What is the molecular geometry of IF5? Enter the molecular geometry of the molecule.
a. Draw the electron-dot structure for CHClO. Draw the molecule by placing the atoms on the grid and connecting them with bonds. Include all lone pairs of electrons.b. What is the electron-domain (charge-cloud) geometry of ClF5? Enter the electron-domain geometry of the molecule.c. What is the molecular geometry of ClF5? Enter the molecular geometry of the molecule.d. ignoring lone-pair effects, what is the smallest bond angle in ClF5? Express your answer as an integer.
a. What is the molecular geometry of PF3? Enter the molecular geometry of the molecule.b. What is the molecular geometry of BeF2? Enter the molecular geometry of the molecule.c. What is the molecular geometry of OF2? Enter the molecular geometry of the molecule.
In CIF3, the electron pairs are arranged about the chlorine atom ina. an octahedron.b. a square plane. c. a trigonal pyramid.d. a tetrahedron. e. a trigonal bipyramid. 
Determine the molecular geometry of PF5. 
Which of the following molecules is not planar? a. NCCN b. H2CCH2 c. SO3 d. SeF4 e. XeF2Cl2
Which of the following characteristics does not apply to PF3?a.contains polar bondsb.has three σ bondsd.trigonal planard.one lone pair of electrons on phosphoruse. polar molecule
Part A: What is the molecular geometry of NF3? Part B: What is the molecular geometry of HCN? Part C: What is the molecular geometry of SCl2?
What is the electronic geometry of SCl4? Enter the electronic geometry of the molecule.
Determine the molecular geometry of SCl 4.
Determine the molecular geometry of ClF3.
A 0.02847 g sample of gas occupies 10.0-mL at 292.0 K and 1.10 atm. Upon further analysis, the compound is found to be 38.734% C and 61.266% F. What is the molecular formula of the compound? Draw the Lewis structure of the compound. Identify the geometry around each carbon atom.
Which geometrical shape is associated with the carbon atoms in alkanes?
Which of the following molecules contains a central atom with sp2 hybridization?
What would you expect to be the electron-group arrangement around atom A in the following case? Give the ideal bond angle. Electron-group arrangement:a. trigonal bipyramidalb. square planarc. trigonal planarIdeal bond angle: ____ ° 
The shape of the carbon dioxide molecule isa. tetrahedral b. triangular c. pyramidal d. linear
What shape would you expect for XeF4?What are the expected bond angles in ICl 4+?Check all that apply.
Which of these molecules are linear? Check all that apply.a) XeF2b) BeCl2c) SF2d) NO2-