Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular StructureSee all chapters
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Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Resonance Structures

See all sections
Sections
Chemical Bonds
Lattice Energy
Lattice Energy Application
Born Haber Cycle
Dipole Moment
Lewis Dot Structure
Octet Rule
Formal Charge
Resonance Structures
Additional Practice
Bond Energy

Resonance Strucutures are used to represent the different possible bonding arrangements in a molecule.

Examining Resonance Structures

Example #1: Determine all the possible Lewis structures possible for NO­2. Determine its resonance hybrid.

Many resonance structures involve the movement of a pi bond within a molecule. 

Example #2: Determine the remaining resonance structures possible for the following compound, CO­32-.

Additional Problems
In the resonance hybrid or experimentally determined structure of the nitrate ion (NO 3- ) it is observed that a. All the bonds are single bonds b. All the bonds are double bonds c. All the bonds have a bond order of 1.33 d. One bond is a double bond and the others are single bonds e. There are 23 valence electrons 
Which of the following is true? a. to convert from one resonance structure to another, only electrons can be moved b. to convert from one resonance structure to another, only atoms can be moved c. to convert from one resonance structure to another, electrons and atoms can both be moved d. to convert from one resonance structure to another, neither electrons nor atoms can be moved e. to convert from one resonance structure to another, electrons must always be added 
More than one Lewis formula resonance structure can be drawn for which of the following for minimum formal charge? 1. SbH3 2. SF4 3. CO2 4. H2O 5. O3
 For the molecule BF3, if we write the Lewis dot structure by first completing the octet around the pendant F atoms, we find that we have used all the valence electrons but the B has less than an octet (Structure A). Using our rules for drawing Lewis dot structures, we complete the octet around the B by forming double bonds from one of the F atoms which give rise to the resonance structures shown in Structure B. Structural characterization of BF3 suggests that there are no double bonds to F and that Structure A is the actual structure even though is does not obey the octet rule. In this case we can justify this structure based on Formal Charge arguments. Determine the formal charge on all the atoms in the electron deficient structure, Structure A, and on one of the resonance structures in Structure B and, using the rules of Formal Charge, tell why Structure A is the preferred one.
In which one of the following molecules is the best Lewis structure a resonance structure?  (a) CO2 (C = central atom) (b) ClO3− (Cl = central atom) (c) COCl2 (C = central atom) (d) NO2+ (N = central atom) (e) HCN (C = central atom)
Which of the following is the best resonance structure for the sulfite ion, SO 32–?
To convert from one resonance structure to another, _______. a) only atoms can be moved. b) electrons and atoms can be moved. c) neither atoms or electrons can be moved d) electrons must be added e) only electrons can be moved.
How many Lewis structures does CO32- have? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5
The electrons in the delocalized molecular orbitals of benzene (C6H6) a) are confined between two adjacent bonding atoms. b) are free to move around the six-membered ring. c) form the electron pairs in the C-H bonds of the compound. d) are unevenly distributed through the molecule. e) are responsible for the fact that the bonds between three pairs of carbon atoms in the ring are longer and stronger than the bonds between the other three pairs of carbon atoms. 
How many resonance structures are there for NO 3-? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) impossible to tell without more information
Consider the following Lewis structures of an organic compound with molecular formula C4H6O3. Note that all of the structures have the same number of electrons and atoms. 
Consider the following Lewis structures of an organic compound with molecular formula C4H6O3. Note that all of the structures have the same number of electrons and atoms.
The structure of the CO32– ion can be described in the Lewis formulation by these structures below. This means that  a) two carbon-to-oxygen bonds are single bonds; the third is a double bond. b) three independent forms of the CO32– ion coexist in equilibrium. c) the electrons must be rapidly exchanging among the three forms.  d) the CO32– ion exists in only one form: an average of the three principal structures shown.
Resonance structures describe molecules that have a) hybrid orbitals. b) rapid equilibria. c) resonating electrons.  d) multiple electron-dot formulas. 
Which dot structure is the best resonance structure for ICN? 
When a given molecule or ion is shown via resonance structures, the numerous structures 1. show the various stable isomers (or kinds) of a compound. 2. show the set of bonding extremes of which the average will better represent the actual bonding. 3. show how an isotope of one or more of the atoms is distributed within a molecule. 4. show the various possible geometries that a molecule or ion can assume. 5. show the nature of the various vibrations possible based on the nature of the kinds of atoms and bonds.
Which is true of the resonance structures of NO 2 shown below: a. Resonance structures only describe molecules that are uncharged. b. Only one of the resonance structures is actually correct c.The bond lengths of N-O bonds in NO 2 are equal d. Resonance structures have the same chemical formula but different arrangement of atoms in space. 
Two possible resonance structures for OCl2 are shown below. Which of the following is true? a. Neither structure is more accurate because they both have the same number of electrons b. Structure B is more accurate because it has more formal charge on the atoms c. The resonance structures are in equilibrium, rapidly switching back and forth d. Structure A is more accurate because the forma charge is 0 on each atom.
How many resonance structures are there for NO 3 – ? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. impossible to tell without more information
Draw the Lewis structure (including resonance structures) for the acetate ion (CH3COO-). For each resonance structure, assign formal charges to all atoms that have formal charge.
Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds.Write ionic Lewis structures for each of them, including the covalent structure for the ion. Write resonance structures if necessary.BaCO3
Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds.Write ionic Lewis structures for each of them, including the covalent structure for the ion. Write resonance structures if necessary.Ca(OH)2
Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds.Write ionic Lewis structures for each of them, including the covalent structure for the ion. Write resonance structures if necessary.KNO3
Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds.Write ionic Lewis structures for each of them, including the covalent structure for the ion. Write resonance structures if necessary.LiIO
Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds. Write ionic Lewis structures for each of them, including the covalent structure for the ion. Write resonance structures if necessary.RbIO2
Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds. Write ionic Lewis structures for each of them, including the covalent structure for the ion. Write resonance structures if necessary.NH4Cl
Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds. Write ionic Lewis structures for each of them, including the covalent structure for the ion. Write resonance structures if necessary.KOH
Each compound contains both ionic and covalent bonds. Write ionic Lewis structures for each of them, including the covalent structure for the ion. Write resonance structures if necessary.Sr(CN)2
Draw a Lewis structure for nitric acid (the hydrogen atom is attached to one of the oxygen atoms). Include all three resonance hybrids by alternating the double bond among the three oxygen atoms.
Use VSEPR to predict the geometry (including bond angles) about each interior atom of methyl azide (CH3N3), and make a sketch of the molecule. Would you expect the bond angle between the two interior nitrogen atoms to be the same or different? Would you expect the two nitrogen-nitrogen bond lengths to be the same or different?Draw the Lewis structures for the resonance forms of methyl azide (CH3N3).
You may want to reference (Pages 316 - 319) Section 8.5 while completing this problem.The N - N bond length in N2O is 1.12 Å, slightly longer than a typical N N bond, which is 1.10 Å, and the N - O bond length is 1.19 Å, slightly shorter than a typical N = O bond, which is 1.22 Å. Based on these data, which resonance structure best represents N2O?
Draw the Lewis structure for acetamide (CH3CONH2), an organic compound, and determine the geometry about each interior atom. Experiments show that the geometry about the nitrogen atom in acetamide is nearly planar. What resonance structure can account for the planar geometry about the nitrogen atom?Draw the Lewis structures for resonance forms of acetamide.
You may want to reference (Pages 403 - 407) Section 9.8 while completing this problem.Assign formal charges to each atom in the resonance forms of N2O.
You may want to reference (Pages 403 - 407) Section 9.8 while completing this problem.Draw the Lewis structure (including resonance structures) for diazomethane (CH2N2). For each resonance structure, assign formal charges to all atoms that have formal charge.
You may want to reference (Pages 320 - 322) Section 8.6 while completing this problem.Draw the best Lewis structure for the nitrite ion, NO2-.
Ortho-dichlorobenzene, C6H4Cl2, is obtained when two of the adjacent hydrogen atoms in benzene are replaced with Cl atoms. A skeleton of the molecule is shown here. Sketch the resonance structures for the molecule.
You may want to reference (Pages 402 - 407)Section 9.8 while completing this problem.Draw the Lewis structure (including resonance structures) for methyl azide (CH3N3).
You may want to reference (Pages 382 - 416) Chapter 9 while completing this problem.Phosgene (Cl2CO) is a poisonous gas that was used as a chemical weapon during World War I, and it is a potential agent for chemical terrorism. Draw the Lewis structure of phosgene. Include all three resonance forms by alternating the double bond among the three terminal atoms.
The organic molecules shown beloware derivatives of benzene in which additional six-membered rings are "fused" at the edges of the hexagons. The compounds are shown in the usual abbreviated method for organic molecules.Draw the additional resonance structure for naphthalene.
Barium azide is 62.04% Ba and 37.96% N. Each azide ion has a net charge of -1.Write three resonance structures for the azide ion.
Formic acid has the chemical formula HCOOH. It is a colorless liquid that has a density of 1.220 g/mL.The carbon atom in formic acid is bound to one H and both O’s. Draw the Lewis structure of the dominant resonance structure for formic acid.
Mothballs are composed of naphthalene, C10H8, a molecule that consists of two six-membered rings of carbon fused along an edge, as shown in this incomplete Lewis structure: Draw all of the resonance structures of naphthalene. How many are there?
Write the Lewis structure for each ion. Include resonance structures if necessary and assign formal charges to all atoms. If necessary, expand the octet on the central atom to lower formal charge.PO4 3 -
Consider the Lewis structure shown below. Are there multiple equivalent resonance structures for the species?
Benzene, an "aromatic" organic compound. The benzene molecule is a regular hexagon of carbon atoms with a hydrogen atom bonded to each one. The dashed lines represent the blending of two equivalent resonance structures, leading to C-C bonds that are intermediate between single and double bonds.What is the significance of the dashed bonds in this ball-and-stick model?
Molecular structure of ozone.What feature of this structure suggests that the two outer O atoms are in some way equivalent to each other?
The O-O bonds in ozone are often described as "one-and-a-half" bonds.Is this description consistent with the idea of resonance?
In the vapor phase, BeCl2 exists as a discrete molecule.What other resonance structures are possible that satisfy the octet rule?
Do any of these resonance structures satisfy the octet rule for every atom in the molecule?
Do any of the four Lewis structures have multiple resonance structures?
Resonance. Describing a molecule as a blend of different resonance structures is similar to describing a paint color as a blend of primary colors. (a) Green paint is a blend of blue and yellow. We cannot describe green as a single primary color. (b) The ozone molecule is a blend of two resonance structures. We cannot describe the ozone molecule in terms of a single Lewis structure.Is the electron density consistent with equal weights for the two resonance structures for O3?
Ortho-dichlorobenzene, C6H4Cl2, is obtained when two of the adjacent hydrogen atoms in benzene are replaced with Cl atoms. A skeleton of the molecule is shown here. Are there any resonance structures for the molecule?
Suppose a particular AB3 molecule has the resonance structure Does this structure follow the octet rule?
The organic molecules shown beloware derivatives of benzene in which additional six-membered rings are "fused" at the edges of the hexagons. The compounds are shown in the usual abbreviated method for organic molecules.Would you expect naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene to have multiple resonance structures?
What are resonance structures?
What is a resonance hybrid?
Do resonance structures always contribute equally to the overall structure of a molecule?
Each Lewis structure of benzene has three C=C double bonds. Another hydrocarbon containing three C=C double bonds is hexatriene , C6H8. A Lewis structure of hexatriene is Experiments show that three of the C-C bonds in hexatriene are shorter than the other two. Does this data suggest that hexatriene exhibits resonance structures?
How important is the resonance structure shown here to the overall structure of carbon dioxide?
Which of the molecules below will exhibit resonance?a. CO2b. CO32− c. NO3−d. O3
For the molecule COCl2 write the possible Lewis Dot structures and indicate the correct one based on formal charge arguments. Show the formal charges for all elements in each structure and indicate how you arrived at them. If any resonance structures are possible Lewis structures, then they should be indicated. 
Identify the major and minor resonance contributor(s) for the azide anion, N 3-.
Draw the Lewis structure of bicarbonate (HCO 3-) showing all possible resonance structures if there are any. Determine the formal charge of each atom.
Draw a Lewis structure for the molecule SCN - with C as the central atom, including formal charges and resonance structures (you should have three structures) Do the same with N as the central atom (again, you should have three structures) Based on the formal charges, which order (SCN- or SNC-) represents the more stable structure? For the more stable order (SCN- or SNC-) which of the three resonance structures you drew is the "best" structure according to the rules of Lewis dot structures and formal charges? Explain your answers.
Draw the Lewis structure of the carbonate ion (CO 32-) showing all possible resonance structures if there are any. Determine the formal charge of each atom.
Draw the Lewis structure for NO2 -  including any resonance structures. Which of the following statements is TRUE? a) The nitrite ion contains two N=O double bonds. b) There are no lone pairs of e - over the N atom. c) The ion contains one N-O bond and one N=O bond. d) The nitrite ion contains two N-O single bonds. e) The ion is nonpolar.
Draw the Lewis structures of the molecules below and use them to answer the following three questions. I. BH3 II. NO2 III. SF6 IV. O3 V. PF5 a) How many of these molecules have no dipole moment? b) Which of these molecules show resonance? c) Which of these molecules obeys the octet rule? a) 1                 b) 2                 c) 3                 d) 4                 e) 5
BrO2- iona) Draw a valid alternative Lewis structure for this ion with one Br-O and one Br=O bondb) Determine the formal charge on each atom in the new structurec) Based on the formal charges you determine which is the best structure and what criteria are used with formal charge to determine the best structure?
Consider the following pairs A and B of Lewis structures. Select the one from each pair that is likely to make the dominant contribution to a resonance hybrid.  1. A1 and B2 2. A2 and B1 3. A1 and B1 4. A2 and B2
Draw four possible Lewis structures of the molecule xenon trioxide, XeO 3, one each with zero, one, two, or three Xe−O double bonds. Include all lone pairs of electrons. Show the formal charges of all atoms in the structures.     Do any of these resonance structures satisfy the octet rule for every atom in the molecule?A. Yes, the structure with two double bonds obeys the octet rule for all atoms.B. Yes, the structure with no double bonds obeys the octet rule for all atoms.C. Yes, the structure with three double bonds obeys the octet rule for all atoms.D. Yes, the structure with one double bonds obeys the octet rule for all atoms. Do any of the four Lewis structures have multiple resonance structures? Check all that apply.A. The structure with one double bond.B. The structure with no double bonds.C. The structure with three double bond.D. The structure with two double bonds Which of the Lewis structures for XeO 3 yields the most favorable formal charges for the molecule?A. The structure with 1 double bonds minimizes formal charges on all atoms.B. The structure with 3 double bonds minimizes formal charges on all atoms.C. The structure with no double bonds minimizes formal charges on all atoms.D. The structure with 2 double bonds minimizes formal charges on all atoms.
Show resonance structures for acetate ion (CH 3CO2-)
Draw all of the Lewis structures of NO 2+ which obey the octet rule and use this Lewis structure or these resonance structures to predict how many covalent bonds connect each oxygen atom in the real structure to the central N atom. Assume that the octet rule is followed for the N atom when you draw your structure(s). Pick the correct statement from the choices below. a) Each oxygen atom is connected to the central N atom with 2 covalent bonds. b) Each oxygen atom is connected to the central N atom with 1 covalent bonds. c) Each oxygen atom is connected to the central N atom with 1.33 covalent bonds. d) Each oxygen atom is connected to the central N atom with 1.25 covalent bonds. e) Each oxygen atom is connected to the central N atom with 1.5 covalent bonds.
A Lewis structure for the carbonate ion (CO32-) is drawn below, but incomplete. Complete the structure by adding in formal charges and non-bonding electrons. Then draw the other two major resonance structures that fit the octet rule.
Which one of the following is expected to exhibit resonance? A) CO2 B) NO2- C) NH4+ D) HCN
Draw the lewis structures (resonance) of NH 2-
How many resonance structures can be drawn for ozone O3?
Select the true statements regarding these resonance structures of formate. A. The actual structure of formate is an average of the two resonance forms. B. Each carbon-oxygen bond is somewhere between a single and double bond. C.The actual structure of formate switches back and forth between the two resonance forms. D. Each oxygen atom has a double bond 50% of the time.
Add formal charges to each resonance form of HCNO below, Please add formal charges for each pictures for A, B and C.
Draw Lewis structure(s) for the nitronium ion ( NO 2+ ).
Draw the Lewis structures for BrO3-  and indicate the formal charges for Br and O’s. a) Indicate the total number of valence electrons b) Describe the preferred Lewis structure. c) How many resonance structures are there in the ion? d) Give the name of the ion.
The formate ion, HCO2-, is formed when formic acid dissolves in water. A number of possible resonance structures for this ion are shown. Which of these structures are valid and which are invalid? Drag each item to the appropriate bin.
When drawing the Lewis structure for SO2 where all formal charges equal zero, which answer describes the sulfur (S) atom: A. Two single bonds and two lone pairs B. One double bond, one single bond and one lone pair C. Two double bonds and one lone pair D. One double bond, one single bond and two lone pairs E. Two single bonds and three lone pairs
A single Lewis Structure of the formate ion (HCO 2-) is shown below. Which statement best describes the bonding character of this ion? (a) One double bond and two single bonds (b) One double bond and two delocalized single bonds (c) Three equivalent 1 1/3 bonds (d) One single bond and two equivalent 1 1/2 bonds (e) 007 James Bonds
Draw the Lewis structure for NO3- (the nitrate ion). Include formal charges and resonance structures as needed.
Draw the Lewis electron dot diagrams for the following chemical species and include all reasonable resonance diagrams, if any. Hint: Minimize formal charge without breaking the Octet rule unless the atom is in period 3 or higher.
Draw the Lewis electron dot diagrams for the following chemical species and include all reasonable resonance diagrams, if any. Hint: Minimize formal charge without breaking the Octet rule unless the atom is in period 3 or higher.
Draw the Lewis electron dot diagrams for the following chemical species and include all reasonable resonance diagrams, if any. Hint: Minimize formal charge without breaking the Octet rule unless the atom is in period 3 or higher.
Draw out the Lewis structures for H 2CO3, HCO3-, and CO32-. Then determine the maximum number of equivalent resonance structures for each species. Note that carbon is the central atom in all three cases. If the molecule contains hydrogen atoms they are attached to oxygen atoms. Only count the best structures. For example, a structure with really bad formal charges should not be counted. The molecule H2CO3 has______ equivalent Lewis structures. The molecule HCO3- has______ equivalent Lewis structures. The molecule CO32- has______ equivalent Lewis structures
Draw the Lewis structure for the ion N 3− . Show the formal charges of all atoms in the correct structure. Include all lone pairs of electrons. If resonance structures are needed to describe the Lewis structure, draw all possible resonance structures.
Draw the Lewis structures for three resonance forms of nitrate, NO 3-. Include electron lone pairs, and any formal charges.
Draw the lewis structures for NO2Cl and NO3Cl. Include lone pairs of electrons, resonance structures, and formal charges. 
Draw a Lewis structure for SO2 in which all atoms obey the octet rule. Show formal charges.
Draw the Lewis structure for the disulfur monoxide (S 2O) molecule. Be sure to include all resonance structures that satisfy the octet rule.
Draw the Lewis structure (including resonance structures) for the acetate ion (CH3COO-). For each resonance structure, assign formal charges to all atoms that have formal charge. Include all hydrogen atoms and nonbonding electrons.
Draw the Lewis structure for the trisulfur (S 3) molecule. Be sure to include all resonance structures that satisfy the octet rule.
Draw and name all possible constitutional isomers of alcohols with the molecular formula C4H10O.
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(c) nitric acid, HNO3 (N is bonded to an OH group and two O atoms)
Draw Lewis structures of all the important resonance forms of (a) HNO3 (HONO2)
Draw Lewis structures of all the important resonance forms of (b) HAsO42− (HOAsO32−)
Draw Lewis structures of all the important resonance forms of (a) N3− 
Draw Lewis structures of all the important resonance forms of (b) NO2−
Draw Lewis structures of all the important resonance forms of (a) HCO2− (H is attached to C) 
Draw Lewis structures of all the important resonance forms of (b) HBrO4 (HOBrO3)
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(d) benzene, C6H6:
Draw Lewis structures of all the important resonance forms of (a) NO2+
Draw Lewis structures of all the important resonance forms of (b) NO2F (N is central)
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(e) the formate ion:
Draw a Lewis structure for a resonance form of each ion with the lowest possible formal charges, show the charges, and give oxidation numbers of the atoms: (a) BrO3−
Draw a Lewis structure for a resonance form of each ion with the lowest possible formal charges, show the charges, and give oxidation numbers of the atoms:  (b) SO32−
Draw a Lewis structure for a resonance form of each ion with the lowest possible formal charges, show the charges, and give oxidation numbers of the atoms: (a) AsO43−
Draw a Lewis structure for a resonance form of each ion with the lowest possible formal charges, show the charges, and give oxidation numbers of the atoms: (b) ClO2−
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(a) sulfur dioxide, SO2
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(b) carbonate ion, CO32−
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(c) hydrogen carbonate ion, HCO3−  (C is bonded to an OH group and two O atoms)
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(d) pyridine:
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(e) the allyl ion:
Write the resonance forms of ozone, O3, the component of the upper atmosphere that protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation.
A toxic cloud covered Bhopal, India, in December 1984 when water leaked into a tank of methyl isocyanate, and the product escaped into the atmosphere. Methyl isocyanate is used in the production of many pesticides. Draw the Lewis structures for methyl isocyanate, CH3NCO, including resonance forms. The skeletal structure is
Sodium nitrite, which has been used to preserve bacon and other meats, is an ionic compound. Write the resonance forms of the nitrite ion, NO2–.
Peroxyacetyl nitrate, or PAN, is present in photochemical smog. Draw the Lewis structures (including resonance forms) for PAN. The skeletal structure is
In terms of the bonds present, explain why acetic acid, CH3CO2H, contains two distinct types of carbon-oxygen bonds, whereas the acetate ion, formed by loss of a hydrogen ion from acetic acid, only contains one type of carbonoxygen bond. The skeleton structures of these species are shown:
Toothpastes containing sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate) and hydrogen peroxide are widely used. Write Lewis structures for the hydrogen carbonate ion and hydrogen peroxide molecule, with resonance forms where appropriate.
Write Lewis structure for the following. Show this resonance structure where applicable.a. NO2-, NO3-, N2O4 (N2O4 exists as O2N—NO2.)
Write Lewis structure for the following. Show this resonance structure where applicable.b. OCN-, SCN-, N3-(Carbon is the central atom in OCN - and SCN -.)
Some of the important pollutants in the atmosphere are ozone (O 3), sulfur dioxide, and sulfur trioxide. Write Lewis structures for these three molecules. Show all resonance structures where applicable.
Benzene (C6H6) consists of a six-membered ring of carbon atoms with one hydrogen bonded to each carbon. Write Lewis structures for benzene, including resonance structures.
What do each of the following sets of compounds/ions have in common with each other?a. XeCl4, XeCl2
What do each of the following sets of compounds/ions have in common with each other?b. ICl5, TeF4, ICl3, PCl3, SCl2, SeO2
What do each of the following sets of compounds/ions have in common with each other?a. SO3, NO3-, CO32-
What do each of the following sets of compounds/ions have in common with each other?b. O3, SO2, NO2-
Benzoic acid is a food preservative. The space-filling model for benzoic acid is shown below.Draw the Lewis structure for benzoic acid, including all resonnance structures in which all atoms have a formal charge of zero
Draw all possible resonance structures for each of these compounds. Determine the formal charge on each atom in each of the resonance structures:(a) O3
Draw all possible resonance structures for each of these compounds. Determine the formal charge on each atom in each of the resonance structures:(b) SO2
Draw all possible resonance structures for each of these compounds. Determine the formal charge on each atom in each of the resonance structures:(c) NO2−
Draw all possible resonance structures for each of these compounds. Determine the formal charge on each atom in each of the resonance structures:(d) NO3−
Which of the following compounds or ions exhibit resonance?a. O3 b. CNO-c. AsI3d. CO32-e. AsF3
Pure HN3 (atom sequence HNNN) is explosive. In aqueous solution, it is a weak acid that yields the azide ion, N3−. Draw resonance structures to explain why the nitrogen-nitrogen bond lengths are equal in N3− but unequal in HN3.
Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) supports combustion in a manner similar to oxygen, with the nitrogen atoms forming N2. Draw three resonance structures for N 2O (one N is central), and use formal charges to decide the relative importance of each. What correlation can you suggest between the more important structure and the observation that N2O supports combustion?
Draw the Lewis electron dot structures for these molecules, including resonance structures where appropriate:(a) CS32−
Draw the Lewis electron dot structures for these molecules, including resonance structures where appropriate:(b) CS2
Draw the Lewis electron dot structures for these molecules, including resonance structures where appropriate:(c) CS
Write the Lewis structure for each ion. Include resonance structures if necessary and assign formal charges to all atoms. If necessary, expand the octet on the central atom to lower formal charge.SO32- 
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(a) selenium dioxide, OSeO
Write resonance forms that describe the distribution of electrons in each of these molecules or ions.(b) nitrate ion, NO3-
Phosgene is a colorless, highly toxic gas that was employed against troops in World War I and is used today as a key reactant in organic syntheses. From the following resonance structures, select the one with the lowest formal charges:
An important observation supporting the concept of resonance in the localized electron model was that there are only three different structures of dichlorobenzene (C6H4Cl2). How does this fact support the concept of resonance (see Exercise 89)?
Complete the following resonance structures for POCl 3.d. Which resonance structure would be favored on the basis of formal charges?
Nitrous oxide (N2O) has three possible Lewis structures:Given the following bond lengths,rationalize the observations that the N=N bond length in N2O is 112 pm and that the N=O bond length is 119 pm. Assign formal charges to the resonance structures for N2O. Can you eliminate any of the resonance structures on the basis of formal charges? Is this consistent with observation?
-What are the formal charges on the sulfur (S), carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) atoms, respectively, in the resonance structure that contributes most to the stability of the thiocyanate ion, SCN - ??The possible resonance structures for the thiocyanate ion, SCN -?