Problem: In a thermodynamic study a scientist focuses on the properties of a solution in an apparatus as illustrated. A solution is continuously flowing into the apparatus at the top and out at the bottom, such that the amount of solution in the apparatus is constant with time.If it is not a closed system, what could be done to make it a closed system?

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We’re asked to show how to make the given diagram a closed system if it is not a closed system.


Recall that a closed system is a system that can exchange or transfer only energy (such as heat) with its surroundings. In other words, matter does not go in or out in a closed system.


While in an open systemboth energy and matter can be exchanged (lost to or gained from) its surroundings.


So, for the given diagram, we can see that a solution is continuously flowing into the top and out at the bottom of the apparatus.  This means that:

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Problem Details

In a thermodynamic study a scientist focuses on the properties of a solution in an apparatus as illustrated. A solution is continuously flowing into the apparatus at the top and out at the bottom, such that the amount of solution in the apparatus is constant with time.


A beaker filled with solution is shown with a tube labeled “In” near the top and a tube labeled “Out” near the bottom.

If it is not a closed system, what could be done to make it a closed system?

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Based on our data, we think this problem is relevant for Professor Kobko-Litskevitch's class at HUNTER.