Step 1

Assuming 100 g, 63.15 g C, 5.30 g H, 31.55 g O

$\mathbf{63}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{15}\mathbf{}\overline{)\mathbf{g}\mathbf{}\mathbf{C}}\mathbf{}\mathbf{\times}\frac{\mathbf{1}\mathbf{}\mathbf{mol}\mathbf{}\mathbf{C}}{\mathbf{12}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{01}\mathbf{}\overline{)\mathbf{g}\mathbf{}\mathbf{C}}}$** = 5.26 mol C**

$\mathbf{5}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{30}\mathbf{}\overline{)\mathbf{g}\mathbf{}\mathbf{H}}\mathbf{}\mathbf{\times}\frac{\mathbf{1}\mathbf{}\mathbf{mol}\mathbf{}\mathbf{H}}{\mathbf{1}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{008}\mathbf{}\overline{)\mathbf{g}\mathbf{}\mathbf{H}}}$** = 5.26 mol H**

$\mathbf{31}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{55}\mathbf{}\overline{)\mathbf{g}\mathbf{}\mathbf{O}}\mathbf{}\mathbf{\times}\frac{\mathbf{1}\mathbf{}\mathbf{mol}\mathbf{}\mathbf{O}}{\mathbf{16}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{00}\mathbf{}\overline{)\mathbf{g}\mathbf{}\mathbf{O}}}$** = 1.97 mol O**

Step 2

Calculate the empirical formula for each of the following natural flavors based on their elemental mass percent composition.

Vanillin (responsible for the taste and smell of vanilla): 63.15%C, 5.30%H, and 31.55%O.

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