Charles's Law (constant pressure):

$\frac{{\mathbf{V}}_{\mathbf{1}}}{{\mathbf{T}}_{\mathbf{1}}}\mathbf{=}\frac{{\mathbf{V}}_{\mathbf{2}}}{{\mathbf{T}}_{\mathbf{2}}}$

${\mathbf{V}}_{\mathbf{2}}\mathbf{=}\frac{{\mathbf{V}}_{\mathbf{1}}{\mathbf{T}}_{\mathbf{2}}}{{\mathbf{T}}_{\mathbf{1}}}\mathbf{=}\frac{\mathbf{2}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{96}\mathbf{}\mathbf{L}\mathbf{(}\mathbf{-}\mathbf{196}\mathbf{\xb0}\mathbf{C}\mathbf{+}\mathbf{273}\mathbf{)}\overline{)\mathbf{K}}}{\mathbf{(}\mathbf{25}\mathbf{.}\mathbf{5}\mathbf{\xb0}\mathbf{C}\mathbf{+}\mathbf{273}\mathbf{)}\overline{)\mathbf{K}}}$

In a common classroom demonstration, a balloon is filled with air and submerged in liquid nitrogen. The balloon contracts as the gases within the balloon cool. Suppose the balloon initially contains 2.96 L of air at a temperature of 25.5 ^{o}C and a pressure of 0.995 atm . Calculate the expected volume of the balloon upon cooling to -196 °C (the boiling point of liquid nitrogen). When the demonstration is carried out, the actual volume of the balloon decreases to 0.61 L. Can you explain the difference between the observed volume of the balloon and calculated value?

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