When naming compounds of different functional groups:
1. Find the longest carbon chain and change the “ane” ending based on the functional group present.
2. Number the chain from the end closest to the functional group present and provide a number for its location.
Some functional groups don’t need their location numbered because they are terminal
3. Substituents will be named alphabetically and a number will accompany the location of their attachment.
4. If more than one of a similar alkyl group is present then we must use numerical prefixes to describe the number of them.
di – 2 tri – 3 tetra – 4 penta – 5
• A prefix is used to indicate the number of carbons:
meth- 1 carbon
eth- 2 carbons
prop- 3 carbons
but- 4 carbons
pent- 5 carbons
hex- 6 carbons
hept- 7 carbons
oct- 8 carbons
non- 9 carbons
dec- 10 carbons
• Combine the prefix and the ending for each functional group:
Write a structural formula for 1-pentanol, the alcohol derived from pentane, by making a substitution on one of the carbon atoms.
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