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Solution: The compound 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (below) gives chocolate its odor and is used in flavorings. In what type of hybrid orbital do the lone pairs of N reside?

Problem

The compound 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (below) gives chocolate its odor and is used in flavorings. In what type of hybrid orbital do the lone pairs of N reside?

Solution

Recall: Sigma σ bonds are formed from the end-to-end overlap of s-p hybrid orbitals. On the other hand, pi π bonds are formed from the side-to-side overlap of unhybridized p orbitals.

From the Lewis structure, we can see that each nitrogen atom in 2,6-dimethylpyrazine forms two σ bonds, one π bond, and holds a single lone pair.

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