Step 1: Bi (EN = 2.02) is less electronegative than F (EN = 3.98) which makes it the central atom.
Step 2: The -2 charge on BiF52- indicates that the molecule has gained 2 electrons
The total valence electrons of BiF52- is:
Group Valence Electrons
Bi 5A 1 x 5 e- = 5 e-
F 7A 5 x 7 e- = 35 e-
+ 2 e-
Total: 42 valence e-
Step 3: Halogens like F, forms only 1 bond when not acting as a central atom. Bismuth is found below period 2 and can have an extended octet. Distribute the remaining electrons on the terminal atom first. Excess electrons are placed on the central atom.
Step 4: Bismuth is surrounded by 6 electron groups: 5 F atoms and 1 electron pair.
Electron Regions Hybridization Electronic Geometry Bond Angles
2 sp linear 180°
3 sp2 trigonal planar 120°
4 sp3 tetrahedral 109.5°
5 sp3d trigonal bipyramidal 90°, 120°, and 180°
6 sp3d2 octahedral 90° and 180°
Predict the shape, state the hybridization of the central atom, and give the ideal bond angle(s) and any expected deviations for BiF52−.
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