Heat of Sublimation: Si(s) → Si(g) ΔH° = 454 kJ
Ionization Energy: Si(g) → Si4+(g) + 4 e– ΔH° = 9949 kJ
Heat of Dissociation: O2(g) → 2 O(g) ΔH° = 498 kJ
Electron Affinity: O(g) + 2 e– → O2–(g) ΔH° = 737 kJ
Heat of Formation: Si(s) + O2(g) → SiO2(s) ΔH° = –910.9 kJ
Lattice energies can also be calculated for covalent network solids using a Born-Haber cycle, and the network solid silicon dioxide has one of the highest ΔH°lattice values. Silicon dioxide is found in pure crystalline form as transparent rock quartz. Much harder than glass, this material was once prized for making lenses for optical devices and expensive spectacles. Use Appendix B and the following data to calculate ΔH°lattice of SiO2:
Si(s) ⟶Si(g) ΔH° = 454 kJ
Si(g) ⟶Si4+(g) + 4e− ΔH° = 9949 kJ
O2(g) ⟶2O(g) ΔH° = 498 kJ
O(g) + 2e− ⟶O2−(g) ΔH° = 737 kJ
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