Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the ElementsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Niobium (Nb; Z = 41) has an anomalous ground-state electron configuration for a Group 5B(5) element: [Kr] 5s14d4. What is the expected electron configuration for elements in this group? Draw partial o

Solution: Niobium (Nb; Z = 41) has an anomalous ground-state electron configuration for a Group 5B(5) element: [Kr] 5s14d4. What is the expected electron configuration for elements in this group? Draw partial o

Problem

Niobium (Nb; Z = 41) has an anomalous ground-state electron configuration for a Group 5B(5) element: [Kr] 5s14d4. What is the expected electron configuration for elements in this group? Draw partial orbital diagrams to show how paramagnetic measurements could support niobium’s actual configuration.

Solution

The electron configuration describes the distribution of electrons within its orbitals.

Each orbital can only contain a specific maximum number of electrons:

s = 2 electrons

p = 6 electrons

d = 10 electrons

f = 14 electrons


a. The condensed electron configuration of Niobium, showing only the 5 valence electrons is:

Nb: [Kr] 5s1 4d4

  • The 5 in 5s1 represents the highest principal quantum number of the element.
  • The following orbital is 1 less than the highest principal quantum number.
  • The noble gas  configuration expression is:
  • [Noble Gas] ns1 (n-1)d4


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