Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the ElementsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Consider the following ionization energies for aluminum:Al(g) → Al+(g) + e-          I1 = 580 kJ/molAl+(g) → Al2+(g) + e-          I2 = 1815 kJ/molAl2+(g) → Al3+(g) + e-          I3 = 2740 kJ/molAl3+(

Problem

Consider the following ionization energies for aluminum:

Al(g) → Al+(g) + e-          I1 = 580 kJ/mol

Al+(g) → Al2+(g) + e-          I2 = 1815 kJ/mol

Al2+(g) → Al3+(g) + e-          I3 = 2740 kJ/mol

Al3+(g) → Al4+(g) + e-          I4 = 11,600 kJ/mol

Explain the large increase between I3 and I4.