We’re being asked to **calculate the effective nuclear charge (Z _{eff})** of the

Recall that the ** effective nuclear charge** is the force exerted by the nucleus onto an electron and is given by:

$\overline{){{\mathbf{Z}}}_{{\mathbf{eff}}}{\mathbf{=}}{\mathbf{Z}}{\mathbf{-}}{\mathbf{S}}}$

where **Z** = nuclear charge or atomic number and **S** = shielding constant.

For this problem, we need to do the following steps:

**Step 1:** Determine the atomic number.

**Step 2:** Determine the electron configuration and group them by n-values.

**Step 3:** Calculate for the shielding constant using Slater's Rules for a 4s electron and 3d electron.

**Step 4:** Calculate for Z_{eff} for a 4s electron and for a 3d electron.

Calculate Zeff for the 4s electron in a copper atom, Cu and then Calculate *Z*eff for a 3*d* electron in a copper atom, Cu.

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