What is the best explanation for the fact that the ionization energy of boron is lower than that of beryllium?
1. the quantum mechanical stability of the filled s subshell of beryllium
2. the increased repulsion experienced by the electrons in beryllium
3. boron has a larger effective nuclear charge than beryllium.
4. the radius of boron is smaller than that of beryllium making it easy to remove an electron
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