Recall that ** radioactive/nuclear decay of isotopes** follows first-order kinetics, and the integrated rate law for first-order reactions is:

$\overline{){\mathbf{ln}}{\mathbf{\left[}\mathbf{N}\mathbf{\right]}}_{{\mathbf{t}}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{=}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{-}}{\mathbf{kt}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{+}}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{ln}}{\mathbf{\left[}\mathbf{N}\mathbf{\right]}}_{{\mathbf{0}}}}$

where:

**[N] _{t}** = concentration at time t

**k** = decay constant

**t** = time

**[N] _{0}** = initial concentration.

Also, recall that ** half-life** is the time needed for the amount of a reactant to decrease by 50% or one-half.

The half-life of a first-order reaction is given by:

$\overline{){{\mathbf{t}}}_{\raisebox{1ex}{$\mathbf{1}$}\!\left/ \!\raisebox{-1ex}{$\mathbf{2}$}\right.}{\mathbf{}}{\mathbf{=}}{\mathbf{}}\frac{\mathbf{ln}\mathbf{}\mathbf{2}}{\mathbf{k}}}$

The half-life for the radioactive decay of C-14 is 5730 years and is independent of the initial concenn·ation. How long does it take for 25% of the C-14 atoms in a sample of C - 14 to decay? If a sample of C - 14 initially contains 1.5 mmol of C- 14, how many millimoles are left after 2255 years?

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