Ch. 17 - Chemical ThermodynamicsSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch. 17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds

Solution: Sodium carbonate can be made by heating sodium bicarbonate: 2 NaHCO3(s) → Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g). Given that ΔH° = 128.9 kJ/mol and ΔG° = 33.1 kJ/mol at 25°C, above what minimum temperature will the reaction become spontaneous under standard-state conditions? A) 0.4 K B) 3.9 K C) 321 K D) 401 K E) 525 K

Problem

Sodium carbonate can be made by heating sodium bicarbonate:

2 NaHCO3(s) → Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g).

Given that ΔH° = 128.9 kJ/mol and ΔG° = 33.1 kJ/mol at 25°C, above what minimum temperature will the reaction become spontaneous under standard-state conditions?

A) 0.4 K

B) 3.9 K

C) 321 K

D) 401 K

E) 525 K