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# Problem: Sodium carbonate can be made by heating sodium bicarbonate: 2 NaHCO3(s) → Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g). Given that ΔH° = 128.9 kJ/mol and ΔG° = 33.1 kJ/mol at 25°C, above what minimum temperature will the reaction become spontaneous under standard-state conditions? A) 0.4 K B) 3.9 K C) 321 K D) 401 K E) 525 K

###### Problem Details

Sodium carbonate can be made by heating sodium bicarbonate:

2 NaHCO3(s) → Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g).

Given that ΔH° = 128.9 kJ/mol and ΔG° = 33.1 kJ/mol at 25°C, above what minimum temperature will the reaction become spontaneous under standard-state conditions?

A) 0.4 K

B) 3.9 K

C) 321 K

D) 401 K

E) 525 K

What scientific concept do you need to know in order to solve this problem?

Our tutors have indicated that to solve this problem you will need to apply the Spontaneous Reaction concept. You can view video lessons to learn Spontaneous Reaction. Or if you need more Spontaneous Reaction practice, you can also practice Spontaneous Reaction practice problems.

What is the difficulty of this problem?

Our tutors rated the difficulty ofSodium carbonate can be made by heating sodium bicarbonate: ...as medium difficulty.

How long does this problem take to solve?

Our expert Chemistry tutor, Jules took 8 minutes and 43 seconds to solve this problem. You can follow their steps in the video explanation above.

What professor is this problem relevant for?

Based on our data, we think this problem is relevant for Professor Costanza's class at USF.