Problem: how many unpaired electrons are in the boron atom?

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We are being asked to determine the number of unpaired electrons are in the boron atom

Neutral element:       Atomic number = # protons = # of electrons


s orbital  can hold a maximum of 2 electrons
p orbitals → can hold a maximum of 6 electrons
d orbitals → can hold a maximum of 10 electrons
f orbitals → can hold a maximum of 14 electrons

When filling up the orbitals, keep in mind:

Aufbau Principle  totally fill in the lowest energy orbital first
Hund’s Rule  electron orbitals that are degenerate (same energy orbitals) are first half-filled before they are totally filled  

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how many unpaired electrons are in the boron atom?

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