Problem: (1). Label each of the following substances as an acid, base, salt, or none of the above. Indicate whether the substance exists in aqueous solution entirely in molecular form, entirely as ions, or as a mixture of molecules and ions, (a) HF, (b) acetonitrile. CH3CN, (c) NaClO4, (d) Ba(OH)2.

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We’re being asked to identify each of the following substances as an acid, base, salt, or none of the above


Weak acids are weak electrolytes that don’t completely ionize but instead reach a state of equilibrium. 


However, it’s easier to identify strong acids than familiarize yourself with all the weak acids (since the common strong acids have rules and are relatively fewer).


Strong acids are considered strong electrolytes. They completely dissociate into ions when dissolved in water.

Strong binary acids – paired with a highly electronegative atom

Strong binary acids are:              HCl, HBr, and HI

Strong oxyacids (or oxoacids) - have 2 or more oxygens than hydrogens

Oxyacids → possess H+ ion, connected to nonmetal and oxygen

Common strong oxyacids are:                  HNO3, HClO3, HClO4, H2SO4

Exceptions to the rule are:                            Oxalic acid (H2C2O4and Iodic acid (HIO3)

▪ both have 2 more O than H but are weak acids because carbon and iodine have low electronegativity


Bases: 

  • Any Group 1A metal when combined with OH , H , O2– or NH2 makes a STRONG BASE.
  • Group 2A metals, from Ca2+ to Ba2+, when combined with OH , H , O2– or NH2 makes a STRONG BASE. 
  • Amines are compounds with only nitrogen or hydrogen (i,e. NH3) or with carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (i,e. CH3NH2).



Let’s take a look at each of the given compounds:


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Problem Details

(1). Label each of the following substances as an acid, base, salt, or none of the above. Indicate whether the substance exists in aqueous solution entirely in molecular form, entirely as ions, or as a mixture of molecules and ions, 

(a) HF, 

(b) acetonitrile. CH3CN, 

(c) NaClO4

(d) Ba(OH)2.


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