Problem: Write equations that show the process forPart AThe first two ionization energies of lead.Express your answer as a chemical equation separated by a comma. Identify all of the phases in your answer.Part BThe fourth ionization energy of zirconium.Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer.

FREE Expert Solution

Ionization energy (I. E.) is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.

First I.E. corresponds to removing thfirst valence electron from a neutral atom

 Second I.E. refers to removing a second electron

 Third I.E. refers to removing the third electron

 Fourth I.E. refers to removing the fourth electron


Since we are removing an electron (e-), it should be on the product side when written in a reaction equation (since the atom is “losing” the electron).

When removing an e-:

• in a neutral atom → will gain a positive (+) charge become a cation (positively charged ion)

• in an ion → will add a positive (+) charge to the current charge


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Problem Details

Write equations that show the process for


Part A

The first two ionization energies of lead.

Express your answer as a chemical equation separated by a comma. Identify all of the phases in your answer.

Part B

The fourth ionization energy of zirconium.

Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer.

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