Ionization energy (I. E.) is the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.
• First I.E. corresponds to removing the first valence electron from a neutral atom
• Second I.E. refers to removing a second electron
• Third I.E. refers to removing the third electron
• Fourth I.E. refers to removing the fourth electron
Since we are removing an electron (e-), it should be on the product side when written in a reaction equation (since the atom is “losing” the electron).
When removing an e-:
• in a neutral atom → will gain a positive (+) charge become a cation (positively charged ion)
• in an ion → will add a positive (+) charge to the current charge
Write equations that show the process for
The first two ionization energies of lead.
Express your answer as a chemical equation separated by a comma. Identify all of the phases in your answer.
The fourth ionization energy of zirconium.
Express your answer as a chemical equation. Identify all of the phases in your answer.
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