Part D. Consider the following molecules with trigonal planar geometry. Carbonate (CO32− ) and nitrate (NO3− ) both exhibit resonance, whereas phosgene (COCl2) does not. Given the information in the transition, and ignoring the simulation, predict the bond angles for each of the molecules in accordance to whether or not they exhibit resonance.
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When there are only equivalent bonding groups, the orientation of the bonds and bonding atoms tend toward normalized, equally spaced arrangements that allow the greatest average distance between atoms. For example, when a circle, which is formed at 360° around a center, is trisected, three arcs of 120° are formed. Similarly, when three atoms are bonded to a central atom, they lie in a plane, and the angles formed between any two bonds (originating at the central atom) are 120°. Boron trifluoride exemplifies this behavior:
These tendencies explain the existence of the geometries for each coordination number around a central atom. Molecules with only bonding electrons and equivalent bond types adhere strongly to the predicted angles.
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