Part C. The structures of H2O, CO2, and CH4 are provided below along with the Pauling electronegativity values of C, H, and O. Use the figure and values to complete the following statements regarding the polarity of bonds in water, carbon dioxide, and methane.
Match the words in the left column to the appropriate blanks in the sentences on the right. Make certain each sentence is complete before submitting your answer.
When atoms participate in a covalent bond, the electrons they share are not always evenly distributed within that bond. Electronegativity describes the tendency for an atom to draw electrons toward its nucleus. When there is a significant enough difference between the electronegativities of two atoms, the bond is considered polar covalent since the electrons spend more time near the more electronegative nucleus. In a polar covalent bond, the less electronegative atom will have a partial positive charge (δ + ), and the more electronegative atom will have a partial negative charge (δ − ). If there is no significant difference between the electronegativities of the atoms, then the bond is considered nonpolar covalent (and the nonpolar aspect can be characterized by the
δ0 symbol). Finally, when the electronegativity difference is very large, ionic bonds tend to form instead of covalent bonds. The table below summarizes how to classify bonds based on the numeric difference between the Pauling electronegativity values of atoms.
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