Part C. Indicate whether each molecule is polar or nonpolar.
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Molecular dipoles are overall dipoles for an entire molecule that result from individual bond dipoles and molecular shape. For molecules where the shape is uncertain, Lewis structures can be used to predict molecular geometry.
If the only bond dipoles that exist are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, then there is no molecular dipole and the molecule is considered nonpolar. If bond dipoles exist and this is not the case, then the molecule has a molecular dipole and it is considered polar. For example, since the molecule below is linear and the dipoles are equal and opposite, they cancel out, leaving the molecule nonpolar with no net molecule dipole. However, if instead the molecule contained atoms A, B, and C, where the bond dipoles for A − B and B − C were not equal, we would expect a molecule dipole and a polar molecule.
Keep in mind there are instances in which a molecule can be made of a single element and still have a molecular dipole. For example, ozone contains a molecular dipole because the electrons involved in the bonds between the oxygen atoms are unequally shared, and its molecular shape doesn't place the resulting dipoles in equally opposite directions.
The electrons involved in the bonds of ozone are shared unequally because the central oxygen atom has to share electrons with the two oxygen atoms on the ends, while the others only have to share electrons with the central atom. This gives the central oxygen a slight positive partial charge.
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