Consider the following element combinations. Classify the bonds formed between each pair as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent qualitatively based solely on each element's position on the periodic table. Do not conduct calculations.
Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins.
• Ca and O
• F and F
• O and Cl
• Na and N
• O and O
• S and I
• Cs and Cl
• P and F
When two bonded atoms attract electrons with equal strength, the result is a nonpolar covalent bond. A polar covalent bond is one in which the electrons are unequally shared between the atoms. An ionic bond results when the sharing is so unequal that fully charged ions form. Electronegativity difference can be used to predict bond type. If electronegativities differ by more than 2 units, the bond is substantially ionic; if they differ by less than 2 units, the bond is polar covalent; and if the values are equal, the bond is nonpolar covalent.
If you are not given electronegativity values, you can still predict the bond type using the periodic table. Metals have low electronegativity compared to nonmetals. So in general, we can predict that any metal–nonmetal combination will be ionic and any nonmetal–nonmetal combination will be covalent. If electronegativity values aren't given, you should assume that a covalent bond is polar unless it is between two atoms of the same element.
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